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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Sepsis prediction during outbreaks at neonatal intensive care units through body surface screening for Gram-negative bacteria: systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Country Study period No. of participants (in final analysis) Gestational age (weeks) Birth weight (g) Age at screening (days)
Hill et al. 1974 (I) [8] USA 1972 31 28–38 1100–3380 3–90
Hill et al. 1974 (II) [8] USA 1972 23 28–38 1100–3380 3–90
Parry et al. 1980 [9] USA 1978 128 NR NR NR
Samuelsson et al. 2014 [1] Sweden 2006–2011 (recurrent outbreaks) 38 25 (36 for controls) 725 (2570 for controls) NR
Tsiatsiou et al. 2015 [10] Greece 2011 96 26–40 800–4300 10–80
Study Screening interval (s) Screening location Outbreak bacteria species/strain Definition of sepsis Control measures Risk of bias
Hill et al. 1974 (I) [8] Weekly Rectal/respiratory Klebsiella pneumoniae type 26 NR Enhanced handwashing; use of long-sleeved gowns; isolation High
Hill et al. 1974 (II) [8] Weekly Rectal/respiratory Klebsiella pneumoniae type 26 NR Enhanced handwashing; use of long-sleeved gowns; isolation High
Parry et al. 1980 [9] Daily Nose/throat/umbilicus/rectum Citrobacter diversus NR Closure of nursery; sterile cleaning; cohorting High
Samuelsson et al. 2014 [1] Weekly Nose/throat/perineum/rectum Serratia marcescens Positive blood culture plus ≥ 2 additional criteria; or: negative blood culture plus ≥ 3 additional criteriaa Hand hygiene; cleaning; handling of venous catheters; distribution of patients in room; antibiotics High
Tsiatsiou et al. 2015 [10] Weekly Perianal/stool Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii NR Antimicrobial therapy; closure of department to new admissions High
  1. NR not reported
  2. aAdditional criteria: (1) leucocyte particle conc. < 5 × 109/L or > 20 × 109/L; (2) platelet particle conc. < 100 109/L; (3) C-reactive protein > 15 mg/L; (4) impaired respiratory function with respiratory rate > 70 breaths/min, grunting/gasping or increased ventilator support in ventilated infants that cannot be explained by other factors