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Table 3 Distribution and association of S. pyogenes among school children in Hawassa from May–October 2018

From: Asymptomatic pharyngeal carriage rate of Streptococcus pyogenes, its associated factors and antibiotic susceptibility pattern among school children in Hawassa town, southern Ethiopia

Variables Total S. pyogenes COR (95% CI) Total N = 287 (100%) p value
Present n = 35 (12.2%) Absent n = 252 (87.8%)
Sex
 Female 23 (16.4) 117 (83.6) 1 140 (48.8) 0.013
 Male 12 (8.2) 135 (91.8) 2.21 (1.8–3.14) 147 (51.2)  
Age
 5–8 12 (17.1) 58 (82.9) 0.76 (0.5–1.8 70 (24.4) 0.123
 9–12 18 (10.0) 162 (90.0) 1.41 (0.8–3.20) 180 (62.7) 0.626
13–15 5 (13.5) 32 (86.5) 1 37 (12.9)  
Children living status
 With othersa 7 (14.9) 40 (85.1) 0.64 (0.3–1.90) 47 (16.4) 0.427
 Mother only 7 (25.0) 21 (75.0) 0.34 (0.2–1.6) 28 (9.8) 0.301
 Father only 0 (0.0) 4 (100.0) 0 4 (1.4) 0.264
 Both parent 21 (10.1) 187 (89.9) 1 208 (72.5)  
Educational status of parents
 Illiterate 19 (15.8) 101 (84.2) 0.89 (0.5–2.20) 120 (41.8) 0.365
 1–4 1 (5.0) 19 (95.0) 3.2 (1.8–4.80) 20 (6.7) 0.309
 5–12 10 (8.9) 102 (91.1) 1.7 (0.9–2.6) 112 (39.0) 0.546
 > 12 5 (14.3) 30 (85.7) 1 35 (12.2)  
Occupational status of mothers
 Othersb 10 (10.2) 88 (89.8) 1.8 (1.2–4.40) 98 (34.1) 0.002
 House wife 17 (12.0) 125 (88.0) 1.5 (0.7–3.20) 142 (49.5) 0.002
 Employed 8 (17.0) 39 (83.0) 1 47 (16.4)  
Occupational status of fathers
 Othersc 21 (14.8) 121 (85.2) 0.35 (0.2–1.50) 142 (49.5) 0.446
 Farmer 7 (10.8) 58 (89.2) 0.26 (0.18–1.94) 65 (22.6) 0.602
 Employed 7 (8.8) 73 (91.2) 1 80 (27.9)  
Family income
 500–900 26 (16.0) 136 (84.0) 0.3 (0.2–1.68) 162 (56.4) 0.001
 1000–1500 4 (12.1) 29 (87.9) 0.42 (0.3–2.20) 33 (11.5) 0.042
 > 1500 5 (5.4) 87 (94.6) 1 92 (32)  
Past history of recurrent of URTI/RHD
 Yes 6 (14.6) 35 (85.4) 0.78 (0.6–1.70) 41 (14.3) 0.607
 No 29 (11.8) 217 (88.2) 1 246 (85.7)  
Number of family per house
 < 5 12 (12.5) 84 (87.5) 1 96 (33.4) 0.208
 ≥ 5 23 (12.0) 168 (88.0) 10.9 (4.0–22.0) 191 (66.6)  
Residence
 Urban 16 (22.9) 54 (77.1) 1 70 (24.4)  
 Rural 19 (8.8) 198 (91.2) 3.1 (1.7–5.8) 217 (75.6) 0.002
Cooking in bed room
 Yes 10 (7.0) 133 (93.0) 2.79 (1.2–6.4) 143 (49.8) 0.321
 No 25 (17.4) 119 (82.6) 1 144 (50.2)  
Previous any disease
 Yes 25 (12.8) 170 (87.2) 0.83 (0.6–2.1) 195 (67.9)  
 No 10 (10.9) 82 (89.1) 1 92 (32.1)
History of hospitalization
 Yes 22 (9.1) 220 (90.9) 4.1 (1.9–9.2) 44 (15.33) 0.000
 No 13 (28.9) 32 (71.1) 1 45 (15.7)  
  1. Italic values indicate significance of p value (p < 0.05)
  2. RHD rheumatic heart disease, AOR adjusted odds ratio, COR crude odds ratio
  3. aGuardians/care givers, b Both mother and father, c Daily labor, merchant, students