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Table 1 Demographic and household information of the study participants

From: Identifying asymptomatic Leishmania infections in non-endemic villages in Gedaref state, Sudan

  Study villages Total P value
Abukishma Algadamblia Aljabal Algadamblia Tirfa Abualnaja
Gender
 Male 18 (46.2%) 1 (2.6%) 12 (30.8%) 8 (20.5%) 39 (41.1%) 0.010
 Female 34 (60.7%) 2 (3.6%) 3 (5.4%) 17 (30.4%) 56 (58.9%)
Participants age
  ≤ 40 years 19 (44.2%) 3 (7.0%) 9 (20.9%) 12 (27.9%) 43 (45.3%) 0.318
  > 40 years 33 (63.5%) 0 (0.0%) 6 (11.5%) 13 (25.0%) 52 (54.7%)
Marital status
 Married 46 (61.3%) 1 (1.3%) 10 (13.3%) 18 (24.1%) 75 (78.9%) 0.033
 Single 6 (30.0%) 2 (10.0%) 5 (25.0%) 7 (35.0%) 20 (21.1%)
Education status
 Illiterate 7 (50.0%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (14.3%) 5 (35.7%) 14 (14.7%) 0.004
 Khalwa 31 (79.5%) 1 (2.6%) 2 (5.1%) 5 (12.8%) 39 (41.1%)
 Educated 14 (50.0%) 2 (7.1%) 11 (17.9%) 15 (25.0%) 42 (44.2%)
Occupation
 Farmer 34 (66.7%) 1 (2.0%) 7 (13.7%) 9 (17.6%) 51 (53.7%) 0.230
 Student 7 (41.2%) 2 (11.8%) 4 (23.5%) 4 (23.5%) 17 (17.9%)
 Teacher 3 (42.9%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (28.6%) 2 (28.6%) 7 (7.4%)
 Housewife 5 (45.5%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (9.1%) 5 (45.5%) 11 (11.6%)
 Driver 3 (33.3%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (11.1%) 5 (55.6%) 9 (9.5%)
Household type
 Thatched with windows 21 (39.6%) 3 (5.7%) 13 (24.5%) 16 (30.2%) 53 (55.8%) 0.007
 Thatched without windows 31 (75.6%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (2.4%) 9 (22.0%) 41 (43.2%)
 Bricked house 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (100%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (1.1%)
Forests visiting
 Yes 23 (74.2%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (3.2%) 7 (22.6%) 31 (32.6%) 0.045
 No 29 (45.3%) 3 (4.7%) 14 (21.9%) 18 (28.1%) 64 (67.4%)
Vegetations
 Inside the house 41 (52.6%) 3 (3.8%) 13 (16.7%) 21 (26.9%) 78 (82.1%) 0.870
 Around the house 11 (64.7%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (11.8%) 4 (23.5%) 17 (17.9%)
Animal breeding
 Inside the house 44 (51.8%) 3 (3.5%) 14 (16.5%) 24 (28.2%) 85 (89.5%) 0.358
 Outside the house 8 (80.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (10.0%) 1 (10.0%) 10 (10.5%)
Insects biting
 Crepuscular 13 (100%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 13 (13.7%) 0.001
 Nocturnal 5 (33.3%) 0 (0.0%) 10 (66.7%) 0 (0.0%) 15 (15.8%)
 Crepuscular and nocturnal 34 (5.7%) 3 (4.5%) 5 (7.5%) 25 (37.3%) 67 (70.5%)
Insects control
 Aerosols 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (100%) 3 (3.2%) 0.001
 Aerosols and bed nets 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (100%) 3 (3.2%)
 Bed nets 35 (60.3%) 3 (5.2%) 13 (22.4%) 7 (12.1%) 58 (61.1%)
 Repellants 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (100%) 1 (1.1%)
 Smoke 2 (16.7%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (8.3%) 9 (75.0%) 12 (12.6%)
 Smoke and bed nets 2 (100%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (2.1%)
 No control method 13 (76.5%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (5.9%) 3 (17.6%) 17 (17.9%)