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Table 2 Association of Salmonella species with socio-demographic factors, hand washing habit and food safety practices of food handlers at Hawassa city, Southern Ethiopia, June to December 2018 (N = 236)

From: Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Salmonella and Shigella among food handlers working in food establishment at Hawassa city, Southern Ethiopia

Variables Categories Salmonella species(n = 5) P value
Positive n (%) Negative n (%) Total
Gender Male 1 (1.2) 85 (98.8) 86 0.322
Female 4 (2.7) 146 (97.3) 150
Educational status Illiterate 20 (100) 20 0.492
Literate 5 (2.3) 211 (97.7) 216
Trained on food preparation Yes 21 (100) 21 1.00
No 5 (2.3) 210 (97.7) 215
Washed hand before touching food Soap and water 2 (1.1) 176 (98.9) 178 0.097
Water only 3 (5.2) 55 (94.8) 58
Washed hand after toilet Soap and water 162 (100) 162 0.03
Water only 5 (6.8) 69 (93.2) 74
Medical checkup Yes 1 (1.1) 87 (98.9) 88 0.653
No 4 (2.7) 144 (97.3) 148
Worn hair cover Yes 1 (1.1) 91 (98.9) 92 0.651
No 4 (2.8) 140 (97.2) 144
Worn gown or coat Yes 5 (2.6) 189 (97.4) 194 0.589
No 42 (100) 42
Trimmed finger nails Yes 2 (1.4) 145 (98.6) 147 0.368
No 3 (3.4) 86 (96.6) 89
Worn jewelry Yes 2 (3.7) 52 (96.3) 54 0.322
No 3 (1.6) 179 (98.4) 182
Use hand glove Yes 1 (7.7) 12 (92.3) 13 0.249
No 4 (1.8) 219 (98.2) 223
Wash hand after touching body parts Soap and water 38 (100) 38 0.593
Water only 1 (3.1) 31 (96.9) 32
No 4 (2.4) 162 (97.6) 166
Wash hand after touching dirty materials Soap and water 84 (100) 84 0.085
Water only 5 (4.2) 115 (95.8) 120
No 32 (100) 32