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Table 3 Determinants of child overweight and obesity in Ethiopia, EDHS, 2016

From: Overweight and obesity among children under five in Ethiopia: further analysis of 2016 national demographic health survey: a case control study

Characteristics Cases, n (%) Controls, n (%) Odds ratio and 95% CI
Crude Adjusted
Place of residence
 Urban 74 (33.0) 66 (14.7) 2.86 (1.95–4.18) 2.63 (1.295.34)*
 Rural 150 (67.0) 382 (85.3) 1 1
 Mother’s educational level
 No education 120 (53.6) 286 (63.8) 0.42 (0.20–0.89) 1.41 (0.44–4.51)
 Primary 64 (28.6) 125 (27.9) 0.51 (0.24–1.11) 0.85 (0.31–2.32)
 Secondary 25 (11.2) 22 (4.9) 1.14 (0.45–2.84) 1.05 (0.38–2.94)
 Higher 15 (6.7) 15 (3.3) 1 1
Frequency of reading newspapers
 Not at all 195 (87.1) 420 (93.8) 0.12 (0.03–0.42) 0.26 (0.06–1.11)
 Less than a week 17 (7.6) 25 (5.6) 0.17 (0.04–0.69) 0.17 (0.04–0.78)
 At least a week 12 (5.4) 3 (0.7) 1  
Frequency of listening radio
 Not at all 155 (69.2) 351 (78.3) 0.65 (0.41–1.01)  
 Less than a week 30 (13.4) 40 (8.9) 1.10 (0.59–2.05)  
 At least a week 39 (17.4) 57 (12.7) 1  
Frequency of watching TV
 Not at all 158 (70.5) 372 (83.0) 0.35 (0.23–0.55) 0.69 (0.32–1.53)
 Less than a week 12 (5.4) 31 (6.9) 0.32 (0.15–0.70) 0.42 (0.17–1.05)
 At least a week 54 (24.1) 45 (10.0) 1 1
Wealth index
 Poorest 61 (27.2) 162 (36.2) 0.43 (0.28–0.66) 1.22 (0.55–2.68)
 Poorer 27 (12.1) 78 (17.4) 0.39 (0.23–0.67) 1.1 (0.51–2.86)
 Middle 28 (12.5) 68 (15.2) 0.47 (0.27–0.80) 1.45 (0.62–3.40)
 Richer 34 (15.2) 56 (12.5) 0.67 (0.41–1.17) 2.02 (0.88–4.61)
 Richest 74 (33.0) 84 (18.8) 1 1
Children ever born
 Four and above 155 (69.2) 243 (54.2) 1.90 (1.35–2.66) 1.20 (0.62–2.32)
 Greater than four 69 (30.8) 205 (45.8) 1 1
Sex of child
 Boys 129 (57.6) 215 (48.0) 1.47 (1.07–2.03) 1.56 (1.102.22)*
 Girls 95 (42.4) 233 (52.0) 1 1
BMI of mother
 Under weight 33 (14.7) 84 (18.8) 0.46 (0.26–0.82) 0.91 (0.47–1.77)
 Normal weight 146 (65.2) 311 (69.4) 0.55 (0.36–0.86) 0.94 (0.54–1.62)
 Overweight/obese 45 (20.1) 53 (11.8) 1 1
Birth rank
 Low birth rank (1–3) 141 (62.9) 218 (48.7) 1.79 (1.29–2.49) 1.3 (0.67–2.51)
 High birth rank (> 3) 83 (37.1) 230 (51.3) 1 1
Age of child
 Less than 6 months 46 (20.5) 43 (9.6) 3.18 (1.98–5.10) 3.40 (2.055.64)*
 6–24 months 78 (34.8) 108 (24.1) 2.15 (1.48–3.10) 2.40 (1.613.58)*
 24–59 months 100 (44.6) 297 (66.3) 1 1
  1. Italic values indicate were demographic characteristic frequency of participants