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Table 3 Antibiotic resistance: phenotypic identification with conventional methods versus genotypic identification with Unyvero ITI application of 72 tissue biopsies from 15 patients with orthopaedic implant-associated infection

From: Rapid diagnostics of orthopedic implant-associated infections using Unyvero ITI implant and tissue infection application is not optimal for Staphylococcus species identification

Standard phenotypic identification Possible genotypic identification—Unyverob,c Relevant for the following species detected in this pilot
Antibiotics tested N resistant microbes/N microbes testeda Patient ID of patients with resistant microbes
Cefoxitin (methicillin resistance screening) 1/13 107 mecA, mecC Staphylococcus spp.
Ciprofloxacin 2/13 107, 117 Corynebacterium spp.
Staphylococcus spp
Erythromycin 1/13 107 ermA, ermC Staphylococcus spp.
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Fusidic acid 3/13 105 × 2, 107 Staphylococcus spp.
Gentamicin 0/14   aa(6)aph(2), aacA4 Corynebacterium spp.
Staphylococcus spp.
Clindamycin 2/15 102, 107 ermA, ermC All
Chloramphenicol 0/9   Finegoldia magna
Propionibacterium acnes
Staphylococcus spp.
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Linezolid 0/13   Corynebacterium spp.
Staphylococcus spp.
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Meropenemc 1/14c   kpc, imp, ndm, oxa-23, oxa-24/40, oxa-48, oxa-58, vim Finegoldia magna
Propionibacterium acnes
Staphylococcus spp.c
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Metronidazole 1/1 104 Finegoldia magna
Penicillin 11/14 102, 104, 105 × 2, 108, 109, 111, 113, 114, 116, 117 All
Piperacillin
Tazobactam c
1/14c   Finegoldia magna
Propionibacterium acnes
Staphylococcus spp.c
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Rifampicin 0/13   Corynebacterium spp.
Staphylococcus spp.
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Teicoplanin 0/4   vanA Finegoldia magna
Propionibacterium acnes
Staphylococcus spp.
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Tetracycline 0/12   Corynebacterium spp.
Staphylococcus spp.
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole 1/13 107 Staphylococcus spp.
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Vancomycin 0/4   vanA, vanB All
3rd generation cephalosporinsd 1/13c   CTX-M Staphylococcus spp.d
Streptococcus pneumoniae
  1. aPatient 115 failed phenotypic antibiotic resistance testing
  2. bUnderline types indicate genes relevant for bacteria detected in this pilot
  3. cAll biopsies were negative
  4. dPhenotypically cefoxitin sensitive/genotypically mecA and mecC negative staphylococci are considered sensitive to meropenem, piperacillin–tazobactam and 3rd generation cephalosporins active against staphylococci