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Table 2 Groups of antimicrobial drugs given to surveyed patients according to the survey year

From: A trend in prevalence of antimicrobial use and appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy in an acute care hospital from 2018 to 2019: repeated prevalence surveys in Japan

TypeaAugust 2018bAugust 2019b
All antimicrobial drugs79 (100.0)87 (100.0)
First-generation cephalosporins20 (25.3)4 (4.6)
 Cefazolin19 (24.1)0 (0.0)
 Cefalexin1 (1.3)4 (4.6)
Penicillin combinations16 (20.3)10 (11.5)
 Piperacillin–tazobactam3 (3.8)4 (4.6)
 Ampicillin–sulbactam12 (15.2)6 (6.9)
 Amoxicillin–clavulanate1 (1.3)0 (0.0)
Third-generation cephalosporins15 (19.0)33 (37.9)
 Ceftriaxone11 (13.9)25 (28.7)
 Cefotaxime0 (0.0)3 (3.4)
 Cefoperazone–sulbactam0 (0.0)1 (1.1)
 Cefcapene pivoxil1 (1.3)1 (1.1)
 Ceftazidime2 (2.5)0 (0.0)
 Cefditoren pivoxil1 (1.3)3 (3.4)
Second-generation cephalosporins12 (15.2)12 (13.8)
 Cefmetazole9 (11.4)7 (8.0)
 Cefotiam3 (3.8)0 (0.0)
 Cefaclor0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Flomoxef0 (0.0)5 (5.7)
Extended-spectrum penicillins5 (6.3)7 (8.0)
 Piperacillin1 (1.3)0 (0.0)
 Ampicillin1 (1.3)6 (6.9)
 Amoxicillin3 (3.8)1 (1.1)
Sulfonamide and trimethoprim combinations4 (5.1)1 (1.1)
 Trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole4 (5.1)1 (1.1)
Macrolides3 (3.8)0 (0.0)
 Erythromycin1 (1.3)0 (0.0)
 Clarithromycin1 (1.3)0 (0.0)
 Azithromycin1 (1.3)0 (0.0)
Tetracyclines2 (2.5)1 (1.1)
 Minocyclin2 (2.5)1 (1.1)
Glycopeptide (parenteral)1 (1.3)2 (2.3)
 Vancomycin1 (1.3)2 (2.3)
Intestinal anti-infectives0 (0.0)5 (5.7)
 Metronidazole0 (0.0)3 (3.4)
 Rifaximin0 (0.0)2 (2.3)
Fourth-generation cephalosporins0 (0.0)3 (3.4)
 Cefozopran0 (0.0)3 (3.4)
Fluoroquinolones0 (0.0)3 (3.4)
 Levofloxacin0 (0.0)3 (3.4)
Lincosamides0 (0.0)2 (2.3)
 Clindamycin0 (0.0)2 (2.3)
Nucleoside and nucleotide antivirals0 (0.0)2 (2.3)
 Acyclovir0 (0.0)1 (1.1)
 Valaciclovir0 (0.0)1 (1.1)
Aminoglycosides0 (0.0)1 (1.1)
 Gentamicin0 (0.0)1 (1.1)
Antimycotics0 (0.0)1 (1.1)
 Amphotericin B0 (0.0)1 (1.1)
  1. aAntimicrobial drugs were classified and reported based on the World Health Organization Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical fifth-level classification. Antimicrobial drugs were listed in order of most frequent use in the 2018 survey
  2. bData are expressed as numbers (percentages)