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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: Exploring the decoy effect to guide tobacco treatment choice: a randomized experiment

VariableTotal (N = 90)Group A (n = 45)Group B (n = 45)P value±
Age40.4 (13.8)40.9 (13.1)39.8 (14.5)0.68
Sex   0.08
 Male26 (29%)9 (20%)17 (38%)
 Female62 (69%)34 (76%)28 (62%)
 Other2 (2%)2 (4%)0 (0%)
Race   0.62
 White67 (74%)35 (78%)32 (71%)
 Black13 (14%)6 (13%)7 (16%)
 Other10 (24%)4 (9%)6 (13%)
Hispanic ethnicity7 (8%)3 (7%)4 (9%)1.00
Education   0.23
 Some high school1 (1%)1 (2%)0 (0%)
 High school/GED21 (34%)9 (20%)12 (27%)
 Associate’s degree/some college38 (42%)16 (36%)22 (49%)
 Bachelor’s degree20 (22%)14 (31%)6 (13%)
 Graduate degree10 (11%)5 (11%)5 (11%)
Marital status   0.42
 Married/living with partner32 (36%)16 (36%)16 (16%)
 Divorced/widowed/separated28 (31%)16 (36%)12 (27%)
 Never married29 (32%)12 (27%)17 (38%)
Annual income$59, 286.3 (58, 078.1)$48, 620.9 (45, 720.4)$69, 697.7 (66, 947.5)0.10
Cigarettes per day10.9 (7.2)11.6 (7.4)10.1 (7.0)0.33
Motivation to quit5.7 (2.5)5.1 (2.4)6.3 (2.5)0.03
Tried quitline counseling before12 (13%)4 (9%)8 (18%)0.35
Number of quitline calls1.6 (1.1)1.7 (1.2)1.6 (1.2)0.96
  1. ± Groups were compared using Chi square for categorical variables and t-tests for continuous variables