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Table 1 Characteristics of participants

From: Full-term low birth weight infants have differentially hypermethylated DNA related to immune system and organ growth: a comparison with full-term normal birth weight infants

 FT-NBW infantsFT-LBW infantsP value
N36125 
Age, years31.8 ± 5.1 (20–49)33.8 ± 5.7 (20–44)0.06
Primipara180 (49.9)10 (40.0)0.34
Height, cm158.6 ± 5.8 (145.0–175.0)156.4 ± 4.3 (148.0–165.0)0.07
Pre-pregnancy body mass index, kg/m221.0 ± 2.9 (14.7–37.7)19.7 ± 2.1 (15.2–24.0)0.044
Gestational weight gain, kg10.0 ± 4.0 (− 3.7–21.0)8.6 ± 3.7 (− 1.4–15.0)0.08
Household income, yen 
 < 2 million11 (3.0)1 (4.0)0.98
 2–6 million211 (58.4)15 (60.0) 
 ≥ 6 million114 (31.6)7 (28.0) 
 Unknown25 (6.9)2 (8.0) 
Educational level
 Junior high school6 (1.7)1 (4.0)0.24
 High school65 (18.0)7 (28.0) 
 Some college135 (37.4)11 (44.0) 
 University155 (42.9)6 (24.0) 
Alcohol drinking
 In conception, yes100 (27.7)4 (16.0)0.46
 During pregnancy, yes0 (0)0 (0)
Drug
 In conception, yes0 (0)0 (0)
 During pregnancy, yes0 (0)0 (0)
Infants   
 Gender, female161 (44.6)17 (68.0)0.023
 Gestational day, week39.0 ± 1.1 (37–41)37.8 ± 0.7 (37–39)< 0.001
 Birth weight, g3056 ± 316 (2506–3994)2362 ± 136 (1982–2606)< 0.001
  1. Data is represented as n (%) or mean ± standard deviation (max.-min.)
  2. FT-NBW: full-term normal birth weight; FT-LBW: full-term low birth weight
  3. P values were determined using Chi square test for categorical variables and independent student’s t-test for continuous variables. P < .05 was considered significant