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Table 1 Basic characteristics and dietary intakes of study participants by quartiles of total energy-dense nutrient-poor snacks

From: Energy-dense nutrient-poor snacks and risk of non-alcoholic fattyliver disease: a case–control study in Iran

  Quartiles of total energy-dense nutrient-poor snacks P trend
Quartile 1 (n = 155) Quartile 2 (n = 153) Quartile 3 (n = 153) Quartile 4 (n = 153)
Cases (n) 31 28 34 50 0.013
Age (year) 41.68 ± 9.57 39.99 ± 9.46 38.18 ± 9.35 35.84 ± 9.64 < 0.001
Male/female (%) 46/54 51/49 42/58 57/43 0.042
Weight (kg) 78.66 ± 16.17 76.47 ± 14.66 78.60 ± 15.8 81.4 ± 16.47 0.071
BMI (kg/m2) 28.34 ± 5.14 27.8 ± 4.64 28.59 ± 5.68 28.61 ± 6.44 0.424
Physical activity (MET) 34.01 ± 3.21 34.18 ± 3.17 33.93 ± 3 33.07 ± 3.12 0.007
Alcohol (n)* 6 22 13 21 0.006
Dietary factors
 Total energy intake (kcal) 2556.33 ± 764.25 2732.64 ± 823.97 2895.42 ± 716.03 3387.51 ± 974.86 < 0.001
 Energy-dense nutrient-poor snack (% energy) 1.56 ± 0.93 3.69 ± 1.62 6.14 ± 2.67 9.74 ± 5.13 < 0.001
 Carbohydrate (% energy) 57.77 ± 6.84 57.89 ± 11.59 56.89 ± 7.17 55.94 ± 5.65 0.027
 Simple sugar (g) 132.66 ± 80.9 132.61 ± 52.89 136.31 ± 48.68 159.28 ± 51.56 < 0.001
 Dietary fiber (g/1000 kcal) 16.06 ± 4.76 15.83 ± 4.88 15.27 ± 5.25 13.11 ± 4.08 < 0.001
 Total fat (% energy) 31.67 ± 6.37 32.56 ± 5.48 33.38 ± 5.62 33.48 ± 4.56 0.002
 SFA (% energy) 7.96 ± 3.19 8.77 ± 3.41 8.88 ± 3.6 8.54 ± 3.39 0.126
 MUFA (% energy) 10.04 ± 2.16 10.56 ± 2.04 10.73 ± 1.93 10.82 ± 1.8 < 0.001
 PUFA (% energy) 12.1 ± 5.53 12.52 ± 6.76 12.65 ± 6.23 11.69 ± 5.6 0.618
 Protein (% energy) 14.7 ± 2.82 14.57 ± 2.6 14.51 ± 2.53 14.62 ± 2.64 0.763
  1. BMI body mass index, MET metabolic equivalent task, SFA saturated fatty acid, MUFA mono-unsaturated fatty acid, PUFA poly-unsaturated fatty acid
  2. aData are presented as mean ± SEM or number
  3. bLinear regression
  4. * Numbers indicate the number of people who consumed alcohol. This amount of alcohol consumption in men was less than 20 g/day and in women was less than 10 g/day