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Table 3 Estimated marginal means (95% confidence interval) for fractions of total homocysteine, cysteine and glutathione

From: Postprandial effects of a meal low in sulfur amino acids and high in polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to a meal high in sulfur amino acids and saturated fatty acids on stearoyl CoA-desaturase indices and plasma sulfur amino acids: a pilot study

Metabolite, μmol/L Group Baseline 1 h 2 h 3 h 4 h p for interaction
Homocystine, nmol/L Cys/Methigh + SFA 21.6 (13.1, 30.2) 30.7 (22.1, 39.2) 24 (15.5, 32.5) 15.5 (6.99, 24) 13.5 (4.92, 22) 0.014
Cys/Metlow + PUFA 15.8 (7.24, 24.3) 19.5 (11.0, 28.0) 17.3 (8.81, 25.9) 14.4 (5.85, 22.9) 12.4 (3.89, 20.9)
Reduced homocysteine, nmol/L Cys/Methigh + SFA 130 (92.4, 167) 188 (151, 226) 185 (148, 223) 154 (117, 191) 150 (113, 188) 0.014
Cys/Metlow + PUFA 150 (113, 187) 194 (157, 231) 117 (80, 155) 101 (63.8, 138) 97.4 (60.1, 135)
Protein-bound homocysteine Cys/Methigh + SFA 6.36 (5.01, 7.7) 6.51 (5.16, 7.85) 5.60 (4.25, 6.94) 4.63 (3.29, 5.98) 4.47 (3.12, 5.81) 0.002
Cys/Metlow + PUFA 5.74 (4.4, 7.09) 5.54 (4.2, 6.89) 5.79 (4.44, 7.13) 5.61 (4.26, 6.95) 5.59 (4.25, 6.94)
Unbound homocysteine Cys/Methigh + SFA 2.25 (1.78, 2.73) 2.73 (2.25, 3.2) 2.67 (2.2, 3.14) 2.46 (1.99, 2.93) 2.24 (1.77, 2.72) 0.001
Cys/Metlow + PUFA 2.23 (1.76, 2.7) 2.04 (1.56, 2.51) 1.95 (1.48, 2.43) 1.80 (1.33, 2.28) 1.80 (1.32, 2.27)
Cystine Cys/Methigh + SFA 43.1 (37.4, 48.8) 46.9 (41.2, 52.6) 50 (44.3, 55.7) 47.6 (41.9, 53.3) 47.1 (41.4, 52.9) 0.001
Cys/Metlow + PUFA 39.3 (33.6, 45) 41.8 (36, 47.5) 38.4 (32.7, 44.1) 37.3 (31.5, 43) 35.9 (30.2, 41.6)
Reduced cysteine Cys/Methigh + SFA 9.85 (7.18, 12.5) 12.5 (9.87, 15.2) 16.6 (14, 19.3) 18.5 (15.8, 21.1) 17.4 (14.8, 20.1) < 0.001
Cys/Metlow + PUFA 10.5 (7.87, 13.2) 11.6 (8.92, 14.2) 8.22 (5.56, 10.9) 7.47 (4.8, 10.1) 7.73 (5.07, 10.4)
Protein-bound cysteine Cys/Methigh + SFA 107 (88.7, 125) 101 (82.9, 119) 94.8 (76.6, 113) 83.9 (65.7, 102) 87 (68.8, 105) 0.270
Cys/Metlow + PUFA 115 (97.2, 134) 113 (94.8, 131) 113 (95.3, 132) 112 (94.2, 131) 110 (92, 128)
Unbound cysteine Cys/Methigh + SFA 121 (108, 134) 130 (117, 143) 136 (123, 150) 140 (127, 153) 138 (125, 151) < 0.001
Cys/Metlow + PUFA 119 (106, 132) 111 (97.5, 124) 105 (91.5, 118) 105 (92.1, 119) 106 (93, 119)
GSSG, nmol/L Cys/Methigh + SFA 39.9 (28.9, 50.9) 26.9 (15.9, 37.9) 27.4 (16.4, 38.5) 33.1 (22.1, 44.2) 28.6 (17.5, 39.6) 0.098
Cys/Metlow + PUFA 35.7 (24.7, 46.7) 30.4 (19.4, 41.4) 40.8 (29.8, 51.8) 33.1 (22.1, 44.1) 31.2 (20.2, 42.2)
Reduced GSH Cys/Methigh + SFA 2.76 (2.18, 3.34) 2.71 (2.13, 3.29) 2.47 (1.89, 3.05) 2.48 (1.9, 3.06) 2.36 (1.78, 2.94) 0.814
Cys/Metlow + PUFA 2.58 (2, 3.16) 2.44 (1.86, 3.02) 2.56 (1.98, 3.14) 2.58 (2, 3.16) 2.63 (2.05, 3.21)
Protein-bound GSH Cys/Methigh + SFA 1.41 (0.14, 2.67) 2.04 (0.78, 3.30) 0.97 (− 0.29, 2.23) 2.04 (0.78, 3.31) 1.48 (0.22, 2.74) 0.875
Cys/Metlow + PUFA 0.337 (− 0.93, 1.6) 1.21 (− 0.05, 2.48) 1.01 (− 0.25, 2.27) 1.44 (0.18, 2.71) 1.01 (− 0.25, 2.28)
Unbound GSH Cys/Methigh + SFA 4.56 (3.71, 5.41) 3.66 (2.81, 4.51) 3.47 (2.62, 4.32) 3.68 (2.83, 4.53) 3.82 (2.97, 4.67) 0.030
Cys/Metlow + PUFA 3.69 (2.84, 4.54) 4.16 (3.31, 5.01) 4.26 (3.42, 5.11) 3.91 (3.06, 4.76) 4.08 (3.23, 4.93)
  1. Cys/Methigh + SFA, meal with high contents of cysteine, methionine and saturated fatty acids; Cys/Metlow + PUFA, meal with low contents of cysteine and methionine, and high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids; GSSG, oxidized glutathione; GSH, glutathione