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Table 1 General characteristics of the patients with nephrotic syndrome and the healthy individuals enrolled in the study

From: Urinary cytology: a potential tool for differential diagnosis of acute kidney injury in patients with nephrotic syndrome

Parameter Control Non-ATN ATN PRO P value
Total (n) 10 9 10 8  
Gender
 Female 5 (50%) 4 (44%) 5 (50%) 5 (63%)
Age (years)a 30 [25.5–36.75] 25 [21.5–50.5] 50.5 [20–56] 25.5 [22–46.7] ns
Serum urea (mg/dl)a 25 [22.75–28.9] 33 [20–47] 64 [37.5–107] 36.5 [24.2–89.5] ns
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)a 0.9 [0.82–0.97] 1.1 [0.8–1.7] 1.4 [0.7–2.0] 1.7 [0.7–2.0] ns
Serum albumin (g/dl)a 1.9 [1.6–2.2] 1.7 [1.6–1.8] 2.3 [1.7–2.8] 0.04*
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)a 360.5 [256–470] 372 [278.5–581.8] 235 [139–291] 0.02*
24-h protein (mg)a 6965 [3913–13,437] 7540 [3482–13,844] 8488 [2860–16,081] ns
SAH 8 (89%) 9 (90%) 5 (63%) ns
Histological diagnostic
 MCD 4 (44%) 4 (40%) 0
 FSGS 3 (33%) 3 (30%)   
 MN 2 (22%) 2 (20%) 0
 NL 0 0 4 (50%)
 DPGN 0 0 2 (25%)
 MPGN 0 1 (10%) 2 (25%)
Tubulointerstitial fibrosisb   7.7 ± 7.9% 9.4 ± 7.6% 8.1 ± 7%
Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) 0 10 (100%) 7 (88%)  
Intensity ATNb 3.3 ± 2.5% 46 ± 26.1% 29.3 ± 26.7%
  1. SAH systemic arterial hypertension, MCD minimal change disease, FSGS focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, MN membranous nephropathy, LN lupus nephritis, DPGN diffuse-proliferative glomerulonephritis, MPGN membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, ns not significant
  2. * Acute tubular necrosis group (ATN) vs. inflammatory-proliferative glomerular lesion group (PRO)
  3. aData expressed as medians and interquartile intervals
  4. bData expressed as medians ± standard deviations