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Table 2 Estimates of cell populations in the urine of patients with nephrotic syndrome and healthy volunteers included in the study

From: Urinary cytology: a potential tool for differential diagnosis of acute kidney injury in patients with nephrotic syndrome

Category Control NS patients P value
With AKI Without AKI
Total (n) 10 (%) 9 (%) 9 (%)  
Small cells 31 ± 29.9 75.3 ± 18.8 30.7 ± 25.8 0.0007*
Medium cells 4.8 ± 5 14.2 ± 9.8 12.2 ± 13 ns
Large cells 64.1 ± 30.3 10.4 ± 11.9 57 ± 27.4 0.0003*
Squamous cells 64 ± 35.1 4.2 ± 3.2 39.7 ± 23.5 0.0004*
Urothelial cells 11.3 ± 14.9 27.3 ± 21.8 33.8 ± 19.9 ns
Renal epithelial tubular cells 4 ± 5.5 26.7 ± 23.1 14.1 ± 19.6 ns
Leukocytes 21.1 ± 22.9 41.4 ± 35 12.2 ± 11.9 0.03*
  1. Data expressed as medians of proportion ± standard deviation
  2. NS nephrotic syndrome, AKI acute kidney injury
  3. * Difference between groups with or without AKI