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Table 1 Mean differences of MDADI subscales according to socio demographic characteristics of participants

From: Dysphagia and its impact on the quality of life of head and neck cancer patients: institution-based cross-sectional study

Variable MDADI (Mean ± SD)
All questions Composite mean Global Emotional Functional Physical
Sex
 Male 56.3 ± 18.5 56.3 ± 16.6 47.6 ± 25.1 58.7 ± 18.9 61.2 ± 17.6 52.6 ± 21.3
 Female 49.8 ± 14.4 49.7 ± 14.3 40.8 ± 19.9 54.3 ± 15.3 53.6 ± 16.8 45.7 ± 15.9
 P 0.054 0.036 0.139 0.204 0.030 0.069
Age in years
 18–43 50.7 ± 16.0 51.6 ± 14.9 41.8 ± 22.6 53.7 ± 17.1 55.3 ± 17.7 47.1 ± 17.8
 Above 43 56.5 ± 17.7 55.3 ± 16.8 47.8 ± 23.3 60.2 ± 17.3 60.5 ± 17.0 52.3 ± 20.7
 P 0.086 0.241 0.189 0.060 0.140 0.169
Marital status
 Living alone 55.4 ± 16.8 54.7 ± 15.5 47.8 ± 24.4 58.9 ± 17.3 59.3 ± 16.8 51.5 ± 19.1
 Living with partner 50.4 ± 16.9 51.4 ± 16.3 40.0 ± 20.5 53.6 ± 17.4 55.5 ± 18.5 46.6 ± 19.4
 P 0.141 0.301 0.091 0.130 0.292 0.210
Level of education
 No formal education 52.7 ± 14.7 53.3 ± 13.6 44.7 ± 20.3 55.2 ± 15.6 56.0 ± 15.0 49.8 ± 16.8
 Primary 50.6 ± 14.8 50.4 ± 13.9 39.2 ± 20.8 53.9 ± 15.8 53.2 ± 17.0 48.0 ± 16.5
 Secondary 54.1 ± 22.5 52.9 ± 21.2 50.0 ± 28.5 57.2 ± 21.5 60.7 ± 20.1 48.1 ± 25.7
 Higher 56.2 ± 17.8 56.3 ± 16.5 45.4 ± 24.4 60.6 ± 18.3 62.0 ± 18.8 51.3 ± 20.5
 P 0.705 0.630 0.508 0.534 0.263 0.929
Employment status
 Employeda 54.8 ± 17.6 54.4 ± 16.6 46.9 ± 24.5 58.0 ± 17.9 59.3 ± 17.6 50.8 ± 20.4
 Unemployed 49.9 ± 14.9 50.6 ± 13.7 38.7 ± 18.1 53.3 ± 15.9 53.9 ± 17.1 46.3 ± 16.1
 P 0.187 0.263 0.098 0.219 0.157 0.283
Place of residence
 Addis Ababa 48.8 ± 17.1 49.1 ± 17.7 39.2 ± 22.9 52.9 ± 17.5 55.1 ± 19.1 43.8 ± 20.3
 Regional /rural 54.9 ± 16.7 54.7 ± 15.0 46.3 ± 22.9 57.9 ± 17.4 58.6 ± 17.0 51.4 ± 18.6
 P 0.118 0.119 0.177 0.214 0.382 0.081
Level of income/medical expenses coverage
 Fee paying 60.7 ± 19.7 58.9 ± 19.8 50.9 ± 25.7 64.3 ± 17.9 65.7 ± 19.3 56.8 ± 24.2
 Covered by government 50.1 ± 14.6 50.8 ± 13.2 41.7 ± 21.3 53.3 ± 16.2 54.2 ± 15.6 46.2 ± 15.8
 P 0.003* 0.018* 0.061 0.003* 0.002* 0.010*
Smoking
 Yes 52.3 ± 15.4 52.4 ± 14.9 43.4 ± 22.2 56.4 ± 15.6 56.6 ± 16.6 47.9 ± 17.8
 No 57.5 ± 22.3 56.8 ± 19.5 49.0 ± 26.3 57.5 ± 24.1 62.0 ± 21.0 55.6 ± 24.0
 P 0.229 0.266 0.333 0.806 0.222 0.109
  1. t test (for two groups comparison) and one-way ANOVA (for three and above group comparison) were employed, *Significant at p value less than 0.05