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Table 1 The pre-ICSS draft items

From: Developing an interpersonal communication skill scale targeting female nursing students

No.QuestionsUnitTechniques
1Looking at the patient in a way that is natural and not uncomfortable to the patientGazeInvolvement behaviours
2Showing an attitude appropriate for listening (e.g., relaxing the body, sitting straight, and not crossing the arms or legs)Body language (attitude)
3Presenting facial expression appropriate for listening (e.g., calm facial expression)Body language (facial expression)
4Sitting in a way appropriate for listeningBody language (distance)
5Nodding while the patient is talking to make it easier for the patient to continue talkingBack channeling (i)
6Repeating the last word a patient said to make it easier for the patient to continue talkingBack channeling (ii)
7Asking “what kind of” and “why” to encourage the patient’s free responseOpened questionsListening techniques
8Asking questions that the patient can answer with “yes” or “no” or with one or two wordsClosed questions
9Nodding while using back channeling expressions such as “uh-huh” and “I see”Encouragement (i)
10Repeating the key words contained in what the patient has saidEncouragement (ii)
11Not simply repeating the words the patient used but rather appropriately expressing what the patient wanted to express using the student’s wordsRephrasing
12Focusing on the portions of what the patient is saying related to feelings and repeating the emotion-related words the patient usedReflecting feelings (i)
13Focusing on the portions of what the patient is saying related to feelings and appropriately expressing the patient’s feelings in the student’s wordsReflecting feelings (ii)
14Identifying the main point of what the patient said and simply expressing what the patient wanted to conveySummarizing
15Trying to find out how the patient understood his or her problem or how he or she was trying to understand this and repeating this back to the patient as accurately as possibleReflecting meaningProactive techniques
16Clearly telling the patient what he or she should doDirections
17Telling the patient your ideas to help the patientAdvice
18Providing the patient with an explanation of a matter that is easily comprehensibleExplanations
19Telling the patient specifically what he or she should doInstructions
20Providing the patient with a view that differs from his or her understanding of the significance of his or her behaviors, ideas, and feelingsInterpretations
21Providing the patient with information about the student themselves that is related to the patient in a way that is appropriate to the situationSelf-revelation (i)
22When providing information about oneself related to the patient, adjusting the quantity and quality of the information in accordance with the time and placeSelf-revelation (ii)
23When a patient is about to make a decision, encouraging the patient to think about the good and bad consequences accompanying the decisionLogical consequences
24Providing the patient with specific and limited feedback (informing the patient of how he or she appears) while maintaining focus on merits and factsFeedback (i)
25After informing the patient about how he or she appears, confirming whether the information was significant to the patientFeedback (ii)
26Observing the verbal and non-verbal expressions and attitudes displayed by the patient and noticing discrepancies between the twoConfrontation (i)
27Appropriately informing the patient of his or her contradictions.Confrontation (ii)
28Checking with the patient to confirm whether the student’s way of handling the patient’s contradictions was effectiveConfrontation (iii)