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Table 1 Summary of results from various serological surveys conducted in India during 2020–21

From: Estimating the wave 1 and wave 2 infection fatality rates from SARS-CoV-2 in India

Part A: State-level results from serological surveys conducted by the Indian Council of Medical Research in 2020–21
Statea Population
(from 2011 Census)b
Serosurvey Ic
(May–June 2020)
Serosurvey IId
(August–September 2020)
Observed cumulative cases February 7e
(per million)
Observed cumulative deaths February 7e
(per million)
# of people tested # of positive samples (%) # of people tested # of positive samples (%)
Maharashtra 112,374,333 2385 19 (0.80) 2681 348 (12.98) 18,189.84 456.6
Kerala 33,406,061 1193 4 (0.34) 1282 11 (0.86) 28,989.92 115.79
Karnataka 61,095,297 1199 3 (0.25) 1287 186 (14.45) 15,427.01 200.28
Andhra Pradesh 49,577,103 1192 8 (0.67) 1245 352 (28.27) 17,920.03 144.4
Tamil Nadu 72,147,030 1200 16 (1.34) 1259 207 (16.44) 11,667.8 171.64
Uttar Pradesh 199,812,341 3616 15 (0.42) 3628 226 (6.23) 3009.75 43.48
West Bengal 91,276,115 2000 22 (1.10) 2097 219 (10.44) 6259.81 111.83
Odisha 41,974,219 1202 7 (0.58) 1223 294 (24.04) 7995.86 46.74
Rajasthan 68,548,437 1188 8 (0.67) 1212 27 (2.23) 4641.87 40.44
Chattisgarh 25,545,198 1210 4 (0.33) 1199 34 (2.84) 12,038.47 146.45
India 1,210,193,422 28,000 156 (0.56) 29,082 3135 (10.8) 9027.74 128.77
Part B: Results from some other serological surveys conducted in India in 2020–21
Region Study setting Study period # of people tested % of positive samples
Delhi (Round 1)f Urban June–July, 2020 21,387 22.9
Delhi (Round 2)g Urban August 1–7, 2020 15,046 28.4
Delhi (Round 3)g Urban September 1–7, 2020 17,049 24.1
Delhi (Round 4)g Urban October 15–21, 2020 15,015 24.7
Delhi (Round 5)h Urban January, 2021 28,000 56.1
Tamil Nadui Rural and Urban October–November, 2020 26,640 26.9 (rural areas)
36.9 (urban areas)
Mumbai (Round 1)j Urban First half of July, 2020 4234 (slum areas)
2702 (non-slum areas)
57.0 (slum areas)
16.0 (non-slum areas)
Mumbai (Round 2)k Urban Last half of August, 2020 3024 (slum areas)
2176 (non-slum areas)
45.2 (slum areas)
17.1 (non-slum areas)
Punel Urban July 20–August 5, 2020 1659 51.3
Chennai (Round 1)c Urban July 17–28, 2020 12,405 18.4
Chennai (Round 2)c Urban October 8–15, 2020 6366 30.1
Indored Urban August 11–23, 2020 7100 7.75
Karnatakam Rural and urban June 15–August 29, 2020 15,624 44.1 (rural areas)
53.8 (urban areas)
Jammu and Kashmirc Rural and urban October, 2020 6230 38.8
Indian Rural and urban December 17, 2020–January 8, 2021
(Serosurvey III)
28,589 (general population)
7171 (healthcare workers)
21.4 (adults)
25.3 (children ≥ 10 years)
25.7 (healthcare workers)
  1. aThe first ten states with maximum cumulative COVID-19 cases (as of 31 January 2021) are included in this table
  2. bInformation sourced from Wikipedia. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_states_and_union_territories_of_India_by_population)
  3. cThe first national serosurvey conducted by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) began on May 11 and ended on June 4, 2020. A randomly sampled, community-based survey was conducted in 700 villages/wards, selected from the 70 districts of 21 chosen states of India, categorized into four strata based on the incidence of reported COVID-19 cases. Four hundred adults per district were enrolled from 10 clusters with one adult per household. A total of 28,000 adults were enrolled in the survey (Murhekar, Manoj V., et al. "Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in India: Findings from the national serosurvey, May–June 2020." Indian Journal of Medical Research 152.1 (2020): 48. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_3290_20)
  4. dThe second national serosurvey conducted by the ICMR began on from August 18 and ended on September 20, 2020. A strata-based sampling design similar to that of the first serosurvey (see (b) above) was used. A total of 29,082 individuals aged 10 years or older were enrolled in the survey. (Murhekar, Manoj V., et al. "SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence in India, August–September, 2020: findings from the second nationwide household serosurvey." The Lancet Global Health (2021). https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30544-1)
  5. eAs of February 7, 2021. Information sourced from Coronavirus Outbreak In India—COVID-19 tracker (www.covid19india.org)
  6. fData from media reports (The Hindu. Published online July 22, 2020. https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/percentage-of-people-with-antibodies-high/article32156162.ece)
  7. gData from a preprint on repeated, cross-sectional, multi-stage sampling serosurvey conducted from all districts and wards of Delhi, with two-stage allocation proportional to population size. (Sharma, Nandini, et al. "The seroprevalence and trends of SARS-CoV-2 in Delhi, India: A repeated population-based seroepidemiological study". medRxiv (2021). https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.13.20248123)
  8. hData from media reports (Hindustan Times. Published online February 02, 2021. https://www.hindustantimes.com/cities/delhi-news/delhis-5th-sero-survey-over-56-people-have-antibodies-against-covid19-101612264534349.html)
  9. iData from a preprint on a population-representative serological survey conducted in all districts of Tamil Nadu, India in October–November 2020. (Malani, Anup, et al. "SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence in Tamil Nadu in October–November 2020." medRxiv (2021). https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.03.21250949)
  10. jData collected by a consortium of government organisations (NITI Aayog and Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai) and research institutes (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and IDFC Institute) (https://www.tifr.res.in/TSN/article/Mumbai-Serosurvey%20Technical%20report-NITI.pdf)
  11. kData collected by a consortium of government organisations (NITI Aayog and Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai) and research institutes (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and IDFC Institute) (https://www.tifr.res.in/TSN/article/Mumbai-Serosurvey%20Technical%20report-NITI_BMC-Round-2%20for%20TIFR%20website.pdf)
  12. lData from a preprint on multi-stage cluster random sampling of participants recruited from Pune sub-wards classified as high incidence settings for a serosurvey. (Ghose, Aurnab, et al. "Community prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and correlates of protective immunity in an Indian metropolitan city". medRxiv (2021). https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.17.20228155)
  13. mData from a research letter on a population-representative serological survey conducted in all districts of Karnataka, India in June 15–August 29 2020 (Mohanan M, Malani A, Krishnan K, Acharya A. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Karnataka, India. JAMA. Published online February 04, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.0332)
  14. nData from media reports (PTI. Published online February 04, 2021. https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/over-21-of-indias-population-may-have-had-covid-19-shows-sero-survey-2363166)