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Table 1 Characteristics of overdoses involving unspecified opioids, long-acting opioids, and heroin

From: Unspecified opioids among opioid overdoses in Oslo, Norway

  Unspecified opioids Long-acting opioids Heroin p-value for comparison across all three groups p-value for pairwise comparisons
n (%) n (%) n (%)   Unspecified vs. long-acting Unspecified vs. heroin Long-acting
vs. heroin
Males 369 (80.4) 99 (73.9) 1424 (79.6) 0.24    
Age (years)a,b 39 (33–46) 44 (36–51) 38 (30–46)  < 0.001 0.001 0.013  < 0.001
Observation time (h:min)a 5:29
(3:49–7:01)
4:54
(2:45–6:48)
4:49
(2:48–6:16)
 < 0.001 0.070  < 0.001 0.37
GCS at presentationa,c 13 (10–14) 14 (13–15) 14 (13–15)  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.54
Lowest GCSa,d 10 (9–13) 13 (11–14) 13 (10–14)  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.46
Bradypnoea (RR < 12/min) 80 (17.4) 26 (19.4) 504 (28.2)  < 0.001 0.69  < 0.001 0.036
Tachycardia (HR ≥ 100/min) 51 (11.1) 14 (10.4) 277 (15.5) 0.024 0.95 0.022 0.15
Bradycardia (HR < 50/min) 9 (2.0) 3 (2.2) 45 (2.5) 0.78    
Hypertension (BP ≥ 180 mmHg) 2 (0.4) 1 (0.7) 10 (0.6) 0.90    
Hypotension (BP ≤ 90 mmHg) 21 (4.6) 5 (3.7) 72 (4.0) 0.85    
Hyperthermia (temp ≥ 39.0 °C) 5 (1.1) 1 (0.7) 16 (0.9) 0.91    
Hypothermia (temp < 35.0 °C) 66 (14.4) 15 (11.2) 149 (8.3)  < 0.001 0.42  < 0.001 0.33
Naloxone treatment 107 (23.3) 17 (12.7) 540 (30.2)  < 0.001 0.011 0.004  < 0.001
Transferred to hospital 75 (16.3) 25 (18.7) 180 (10.1)  < 0.001 0.62  < 0.001 0.003
Total 459 (100) 134 (100) 1788 (100)     
  1. BP blood pressure, GCS Glasgow coma scale score, HR heart rate, RR respiratory rate, temp temperature
  2. aMedian (interquartile range)
  3. bMissing data for 89 cases (unspecified 49, long-acting 3, heroin 37)
  4. cMissing data for 7 cases (unspecified 1, heroin 6)
  5. dMissing data for 401 cases (unspecified 26, long-acting 26, heroin 349)