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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of the study population

From: The association between the clinical severity of heart failure and docosahexaenoic acid accumulation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

  Mild (N = 8) Severe (N = 8) P
Age (years) 70.5 ± 11.6 56.4 ± 21.8 0.13
Weight (kg) 61.4 ± 11.9 59.0 ± 16.2 0.75
BMI (kg/m2) 25.0 ± 5.0 22.6 ± 4.5 0.34
Female, N (%) 5 (62.5) 3 (37.5) 0.32
NYHA class    0.029
 I 3 (37.5) 0 (0.0)  
 II 5 (62.5) 4 (50.0)  
 III 0 (0.0) 4 (50.0)  
 IV 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
History of cardiopulmonary arrest, N (%) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
History of unexplained syncope, N (%) 1 (12.5) 5 (62.5) 0.039
Family history of sudden cardiac death, N (%) 0 (0.0) 1 (12.5) 0.3
Documentation of NSVT, N (%) 1 (12.5) 2 (25.0) 0.5
Risk of sudden cardiac death in 5 years (%) 1.58 ± 1.08 4.31 ± 2.93 0.036
Atrial fibrillation, N (%) 3 (37.5) 1 (12.5) 0.25
Hypertension, N (%) 4 (50.0) 5 (62.5) 0.61
Diabetes, N (%) 1 (12.5) 1 (12.5) 1.0
Dyslipidemia, N (%) 3 (37.5) 2 (25.0) 0.59
Current smoker, N (%) 2 (25.0) 1 (12.5) 0.52
COPD, N (%) 1 (12.5) 0 (0.0) 0.3
Coronary artery disease, N (%) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Stroke, N (%) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Malignancy, N (%) 1 (12.5) 1 (12.5) 1.0
Medication, N (%)
 Na channel blocker 1 (12.5) 2 (25.0) 0.52
 Beta-blocker 5 (62.5) 6 (75.0) 0.59
 Calcium channel blocker 5 (62.5) 2 (25.0) 0.13
 ACE inhibitors or ARBs 3 (37.5) 4 (50.0) 0.61
 Anticoagulation 2 (25.0) 1 (12.5) 0.52
 Amiodarone 0 (0.0) 1 (12.5) 0.3
 Metformin 1 (12.5) 0 (0.0) 0.3
 Statin 1 (12.5) 1 (12.5) 1.0
 Fibrate 0 (0.0) 1 (12.5) 0.3
 Ezetimib 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 EPA 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 DHA 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Operations and interventions, N (%)
 Surgical myectomy 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Alcohol septal ablation 0 (0.0) 5 (62.5) 0.007
 AF ablation 2 (25.0) 0 (0.0) 0.13
 ICD implantation 0 (0.0) 2 (25.0) 0.13
Vital signs
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 121.0 ± 11.7 121.4 ± 11.9 0.95
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 73.8 ± 13.3 66.2 ± 7.4 0.19
 Heart rate (bpm) 59.0 ± 8.4 66.1 ± 6.4 0.077
Laboratory data
 NT-proBNP (pg/mL) 477.4 ± 471.7 1482 ± 1497 0.092
 Troponin T (ng/mL) 0.0129 ± 0.008 0.0254 ± 0.022 0.15
 CRP (mg/dL) 0.13 ± 0.11 0.07 ± 0.04 0.24
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.7 ± 1.7 13.3 ± 2.4 0.60
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.90 ± 0.21 0.83 ± 0.31 0.80
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 57.1 ± 15.6 65.8 ± 29.0 0.47
 HbA1c (%) 5.9 ± 0.6 5.6 ± 0.4 0.34
 LDL-C (mg/dL) 106.3 ± 22.8 99.1 ± 19.2 0.51
 Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (µg/mL) 38.2 ± 12.0 41.2 ± 13.8 0.67
 Arachidonic acid (AA) (µg/mL) 201.4 ± 33.0 197.0 ± 55.0 0.86
 EPA (µg/mL) 73.4 ± 52.7 46.8 ± 20.5 0.21
 DHA (µg/mL) 115.0 ± 46.9 127.3 ± 39.6 0.59
 EPA/AA ratio 0.39 ± 0.28 0.24 ± 0.09 0.22
 DHA/AA ratio 0.60 ± 0.32 0.66 ± 0.21 0.66
Echocardiographic variables
 Maximum LV wall thickness (mm) 17.3 ± 4.6 19.4 ± 2.4 0.28
 LVEF (%) 72.0 ± 7.1 70.2 ± 4.7 0.56
 LAD (mm) 41.0 ± 7.3 38.4 ± 2.5 0.37
 LAVI (mL/m2) 53.5 ± 20.5 46.1 ± 5.5 0.39
 E/A 0.73 ± 0.18 0.84 ± 0.53 0.58
 E/e’ 17.3 ± 5.2 16.4 ± 7.4 0.79
 LVOT-PG (mmHg) 32.3 ± 43.4 59.8 ± 37.5 0.20
MRI variables
 LV mass (g) 112.5 ± 39.5 166.6 ± 40.4 0.017
 Apical aneurysm, N (%) 1 (12.5) 2 (25.0) 0.52
 LGE, N (%) 3 (37.5) 4 (50.0) 0.61
  1. Bold values denote statistical significance at the P < 0.05.
  2. Data are expressed as mean ± SD and number (%)
  3. BMI body mass index; NYHA New York Heart Association; NSVT non-sustained ventricular tachycardia; COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB angiotensin receptor blocker; EPA eicosapentaenoic acid; DHA docosahexaenoic acid; AF atrial fibrillation; ICD implantable cardioverter defibrillator; NT-proBNP n-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; CRP C-reactive protein; eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate; LV left ventricle; LAD left atrial diameter; LAVI left atrial volume index; LVOT-PG left ventricular outflow tract-pressure gradient; MRI magnetic resonance imaging; LGE late gadolinium enhancement