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  1. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) may enhance the chances of morbidity and mortality and play a key role in continuous transmission of the bacilli. The objective of this study was to descri...

    Authors: Muhammad AN Saqib, Irum N Awan, Syed KA Rizvi, Mirza I Shahzad, Zahid S Mirza, Sabira Tahseen, Imran H Khan and Azra Khanum
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:165
  2. The accuracy of quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is often influenced by experimental artifacts, resulting in erroneous expression profiles of target genes. The practice of employing normalization using ...

    Authors: Dongrim Seol, Hyeonghun Choe, Hongjun Zheng, Keewoong Jang, Prem S Ramakrishnan, Tae-Hong Lim and James A Martin
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:162
  3. Genotyping analysis using capillary DNA sequencing with fluorescently labeled primer pairs obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is widely used, but is expensive. The post-PCR labeling method using fluor...

    Authors: Tokurou Shimizu and Kanako Yano
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:161
  4. Adenoviruses force quiescent cells to re-enter the cell cycle to replicate their DNA, and for the most part, this is accomplished after they express the E1A protein immediately after infection. In this context...

    Authors: Jean-Eudes Dazard, Keman Zhang, Jingfeng Sha, Omar Yasin, Linda Cai, Chien Nguyen, Mrinal Ghosh, Jennifer Bongorno and Marian L Harter
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:160
  5. Gene-gene interaction in genetic association studies is computationally intensive when a large number of SNPs are involved. Most of the latest Central Processing Units (CPUs) have multiple cores, whereas Graph...

    Authors: Satish Chikkagoudar, Kai Wang and Mingyao Li
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:158
  6. Although many molecular regulators of adipogenesis have been identified a comprehensive catalogue of components is still missing. Recent studies showed that the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) was expressed in th...

    Authors: Robab Hakim-Weber, Anne-M Krogsdam, Claus Jørgensen, Maria Fischer, Andreas Prokesch, Juliane G Bogner-Strauss, Stefan R Bornstein, Jacob B Hansen, Lise Madsen, Karsten Kristiansen, Zlatko Trajanoski and Hubert Hackl
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:157
  7. Altered tryptophan metabolism and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity are linked to cancer development and progression. In addition, these biological factors have been associated with the development and seve...

    Authors: Debra E Lyon, Jeanne M Walter, Angela R Starkweather, Christine M Schubert and Nancy L McCain
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:156
  8. It has been suggested that individuals from non-western countries tend to deny or mask psychological symptoms of common mental disorders and to present with somatic symptoms. The aim of the present paper was t...

    Authors: Petros Skapinakis and Ricardo Araya
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:155
  9. Lysates from tumor cells are reported to induce maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) and are used in clinical settings for DC-based vaccination against solid tumors. Nevertheless, the maturation inducing effect...

    Authors: Gloria Isabelle Herzog, Ghasem Solgi, Denis S Wiegmann, Christian Nienhaus, Hubert Schrezenmeier, Tatjana Yildiz and Ramin Lotfi
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:153
  10. In preclinical studies, müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS) has a protective affect against breast cancer. Our objective was to determine whether serum MIS concentrations were associated with cancerous or pre...

    Authors: Andrew C McCoy, Beth Kliethermes, Ke Zhang, Wenyi Qin, Robert Sticca, Michael Bouton and Edward R Sauter
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:152
  11. Genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) are very popular genetic markers among evolutionary biologists because of their potential role in pathogen confrontation and sexual selection. However, MHC g...

    Authors: Miguel Alcaide, Airam Rodríguez and Juan J Negro
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:151
  12. To facilitate automation, a novel DNA extraction method for MRSA was adopted. The MRSA specific chromosome-SCCmec PCR was adapted, additional primers were added, and the performance was validated. From various la...

    Authors: Anneke van der Zee, Lieuwe Roorda, Willem DH Hendriks, Jacobus M Ossewaarde and Johannes Buitenwerf
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:150
  13. The use of RNAi to analyse gene function in vitro is now widely applied in biological research. However, several difficulties are associated with its use in vivo, mainly relating to inefficient delivery and non-s...

    Authors: Mike Herbert, Natacha Coppieters, Annette Lasham, Helen Cao and Glen Reid
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:148
  14. Obstructive jaundice poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to general surgeons practicing in resource-limited countries. This study was undertaken to highlight the etiological spectrum, treatment outcome...

    Authors: Phillipo L Chalya, Emmanuel S Kanumba and Mabula Mchembe
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:147
  15. Beef traceability has become mandatory in many regions of the world and is typically achieved through the use of unique numerical codes on ear tags and animal passports. DNA-based traceability uses the animal'...

    Authors: Yanir Seroussi, Andrey Shirak and Eyal Seroussi
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:146
  16. In many parts of the world, health problems and diseases have often been caused by discharging untreated or inadequately treated wastewater. In this study, we aimed to control physico-chemical parameters in wa...

    Authors: Imen Ben Salem, Imen Ouardani, Mouna Hassine and Mahjoub Aouni
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:144
  17. Elucidating molecular recognition by proteins, such as in enzyme-substrate and receptor-ligand interactions, is a key to understanding biological phenomena. To delineate these protein interactions, it is impor...

    Authors: Mizuki Morita, Tohru Terada, Shugo Nakamura and Kentaro Shimizu
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:143
  18. The impact of haemoglobin concentrations on clinical outcomes is still a controversial issue. To determine the association between haemoglobin concentrations on admission and clinical outcomes and the related ...

    Authors: Quan-Zhou Feng, Yu-Sheng Zhao and Yu-Feng Li
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:142
  19. Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an HDL-associated enzyme with anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory properties that has been suggested to play an important protective role against coronary heart diseases and underlying...

    Authors: Kai Lüersen, Constance Schmelzer, Christine Boesch-Saadatmandi, Christine Kohl, Gerald Rimbach and Frank Döring
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:141
  20. The binding of EGFR and its ligands leads to autophosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinase as well as subsequent activation of signal transduction pathways that are involved in regulating cellular proliferat...

    Authors: Teppei Matsuo, Satoshi S Nishizuka, Kazushige Ishida, Takeshi Iwaya, Miyuki Ikeda and Go Wakabayashi
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:140
  21. The ME/CFS Disease Register is one of six subprojects within the National ME/CFS Observatory, a research programme funded by the Big Lottery Fund and sponsored by Action for ME. A pilot study in East Anglia, E...

    Authors: Derek Pheby, Eliana Lacerda, Luis Nacul, Maria de Lourdes Drachler, Peter Campion, Amanda Howe, Fiona Poland, Monica Curran, Valerie Featherstone, Shagufta Fayyaz, Dikaios Sakellariou and José Carlos de Carvalho Leite
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:139
  22. Directed protein evolution has been used to modify protein activity and research has been carried out to enhance the production of high quality mutant libraries. Many theoretical approaches suggest that allowi...

    Authors: Wendy S Smith, Jennifer R Hale and Cameron Neylon
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:138
  23. Cell lines from Atlantic salmon kidney have made it possible to culture and study infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV), an aquatic orthomyxovirus affecting farmed Atlantic salmon. However, transfection of the...

    Authors: Berit L Schiøtz, Esther G Rosado, Espen S Baekkevold, Morten Lukacs, Siri Mjaaland, Hilde Sindre, Unni Grimholt and Tor Gjøen
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:136
  24. Differential lung ventilation (DLV) is used to salvage ventilatory support in severe unilateral lung disease in the critical care setting. However, DLV with a double-lumen tube is associated with serious compl...

    Authors: Kazuma Yamakawa, Yasushi Nakamori, Satoshi Fujimi, Hiroshi Ogura, Yasuyuki Kuwagata and Takeshi Shimazu
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:134
  25. Tools to visualize and explore genomes hold a central place in genomics and the diversity of genome browsers has increased dramatically over the last few years. It often turns out to be a daunting task to comp...

    Authors: Thomas Lacroix, Valentin Loux, Annie Gendrault, Jean-François Gibrat and Hélène Chiapello
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:133
  26. Chagas disease constitutes an important public health threat in terms of morbidity and mortality in the areas in the United States where immigrant populations from Latin America are conspicuous. We conducted a...

    Authors: Roberto Arena, Christine E Mathews, Anne Y Kim, Tim E Lenz and Paul M Southern
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:132
  27. Second generation technologies have advantages over Sanger; however, they have resulted in new challenges for the genome construction process, especially because of the small size of the reads, despite the hig...

    Authors: Rommel TJ Ramos, Adriana R Carneiro, Jan Baumbach, Vasco Azevedo, Maria PC Schneider and Artur Silva
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:130
  28. Yersinia enterocolitica is a common cause of food borne gastrointestinal disease. After oral uptake, yersiniae invade Peyer's patches of the distal ileum. This is accomplished by the binding of the Yersinia invas...

    Authors: Janja Trček, Marc F Oellerich, Katy Niedung, Frank Ebel, Sandra Freund and Konrad Trülzsch
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:129
  29. Bacterial and viral DNA replication was previously reconstituted in vitro from component parts [14]. Significant advances in building minimal cell-like structures also have been made recently [57]. Combining th...

    Authors: Domenica Torino, Cristina Del Bianco, Lindsey A Ross, Jennifer L Ong and Sheref S Mansy
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:128
  30. The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of people originally aged 18 years and over. The aim of this study was to describe normative data for hand grip strength in a ...

    Authors: Nicola M Massy-Westropp, Tiffany K Gill, Anne W Taylor, Richard W Bohannon and Catherine L Hill
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:127
  31. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most frequent chronic blood-borne infections in the United States. The epidemiology of HCV transmission is not completely understood, particularly in women and m...

    Authors: Diana Nurutdinova, Arbi B Abdallah, Susan Bradford, Catina C O'Leary and Linda B Cottler
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:126
  32. Aldosterone, one of the major culprits associated with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), is significantly elevated following high salt administration in Dahl rats. Since we have previously demon...

    Authors: Danita Eatman, Katie Peagler, Jana Watson, Aisha Rollins-Hairston and Mohamed A Bayorh
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:125
  33. Nearly 5% of all Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains worldwide are resistant at least to rifampicin and isoniazid (multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, MDR-TB). Inclusion of a fluoroquinolone and an injectable agent ...

    Authors: Noura M Al-Mutairi, Suhail Ahmad and Eiman Mokaddas
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:123
  34. Nasopharyngeal carriage of potential pathogens is important as it is both the major source of transmission and the prerequisite of invasive disease. New methods for detecting carriage could improve comfort, ac...

    Authors: Jenna F Gritzfeld, Paul Roberts, Lorna Roche, Sherouk El Batrawy and Stephen B Gordon
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:122
  35. Structural biomolecular data are commonly stored in the PDB format. The PDB format is widely supported by software vendors because of its simplicity and readability. However, the PDB format cannot fully addres...

    Authors: Petr Čech and Daniel Svozil
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:121
  36. Sex-specific DNA markers can serve as tools for molecular sex identification, as well as for population genetic inferences. We investigated the potential utility of a microsatellite marker located on sex chrom...

    Authors: Takahito Shikano, Gábor Herczeg and Juha Merilä
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:119
  37. The transcription factor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α is a master regulator of the cellular response to low oxygen concentration. Compound C, an inhibitor of AMP-activated kinase, has been reported to inhibit h...

    Authors: Yee Liu Chua and Thilo Hagen
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:117

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