- Short Report
- Open Access
Drugs, alcohol and sexual health: opportunities to influence risk behaviour
© Patton et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
- Received: 11 March 2008
- Accepted: 18 June 2008
- Published: 18 June 2008
Alcohol and drug consumption can affect judgment and may contribute towards an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour. In this cross sectional survey of clients attending STI services levels of drug and alcohol use were assessed using two standardised drug and alcohol screening instruments (the PAT and the SDS).
The rates of hazardous alcohol consumption were similar to those found among patients attending A&E departments. Approximately 15% of clients indicated possible dependence on alcohol or other drugs, and these clients were likely to cite their substance use as related to their attendance, and to accept the offer of help or advice.
The use of brief screening instruments as part of routine clinical practice is recommended. The STI clinic is well placed to identify substance use and to offer advice and/or onward referral to specialist services.
- Sexually Transmit Infection
- Screening Instrument
- Cannabis User
- Alcohol User
- Clinic Attendance
Research examining the prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) and risk behaviours amongst a population of drug users in treatment indicates a high level of unprotected sexual activity  (22%). Hwang et al  found that 62% of drug users in treatment had serological markers for at least one STI. Another study by Lally et al  indicated that 23% of women in short-term substance abuse treatment were infected. A review by Marx et al (1991)  found associations between drug use (particularly crack) and STIs.
High rates of hazardous drinking among clients were confirmed during a recent pilot study based in the sexual health clinic at St Mary's Hospital in inner-London , in this study 96 patients attending a walk-in clinic were screened, 27% were found to be drinking excessively and 13% thought their attendance in the clinic might be related to their consumption of alcohol. The relationship between drug taking and engagement in sexual activity (protected or unprotected) is important; however the establishment of a causal relationship between the two remains unproven . STI services offer an opportunity to identify hazardous and harmful drug and alcohol users and to either offer them brief advice in the form of a leaflet, or refer them on to specialist services. This study examines the prevalence of substance use among clinic users, their perception as to the relationship between their substance use and clinic attendance and the extent to which they are willing to accept help and advice about their drug or alcohol usage.
Over a six week period, 700 consecutive clients attending an STI clinic of a busy South London hospital were approached by a junior doctor. At the end of the consultation, having obtained consent, the doctor administered the Brief Alcohol & Drug Screen; a composite measure that includes the Paddington Alcohol Test (PAT)  and Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) [8, 9]. Participants who indicated that they drank more than 8 (male) or 6 units (female) on a single occasion, or who admitted that their visit to the clinic was related to their drinking, were classified as hazardous drinkers. Those scoring 3+ on the SDS were regarded as possibly dependant. Participants identified as hazardous drug or alcohol users were offered a leaflet outlining how they could access help with their substance use problem, and asked if a referral were made to local drug/alcohol services whether they would attend.
Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis consumption
One in seven hazardous drinkers (14.2%) and half of those identified as SDS positive accepted an offer of help or advice, and of these 90% indicated that they would also accept a referral for an appointment with a specialist to discuss their alcohol or drug consumption.
Overall 6.6% of the sample thought that their attendance was related to their substance use. Binary logistic regression indicated that hazardous drinking did not predict the acceptance an offer of help/advice (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 – 0.9), however SDS+ status did (OR 17.2, 95% CI 9.0 – 32.3). SDS+ status also predicted patients who indicated that their attendance was related to their substance use (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.5 – 6.5).
Clinicians may be surprised at the low numbers of clients who related their attendance to substance use; however this might be expected, given that in other settings, such as Accident & Emergency departments, rates are similar .
The 2000 Psychiatric Morbidity Survey  reports hazardous alcohol consumption, tobacco and cannabis use in the UK general population to be 26%, 30% and 25% respectively. Participants in the study had similar rates of hazardous alcohol use, but much reduced rates of both tobacco and cannabis consumption. Interestingly, the rate of possible dependence to alcohol was six times the national rate (24.6% vs. 4%). These results suggest that harmful levels of alcohol consumption are associated with STI clinic attendance, and future research should attempt to determine if there is a causal relationship.
STI clinics are well placed both to identify substance use and to offer onward referral to those whose use is problematic. At present most STI services do not routinely screen for alcohol or other drugs. The identification and appropriate referral of those clients whose substance use may well be associated with their clinic attendance may not only help to reduce clinic workload, but also enable STI services to deliver an important public health message.
This study indicates that using a brief screening instrument for drugs and alcohol as part of routine clinical work is a feasible proposition. While clinicians may be reluctant to address issues of substance misuse in the clinic setting, many clients are certainly receptive to advice and onward referral, which we know will help reduce their consumption and may in turn reduce the likelihood of engaging in risk behaviours.
This study was funded by a grant from Lambeth Primary Care Trust.
- Liebschutz JM, Finley EP, Braslins PG, Christiansen D, Horton NJ, Samet JH: Screening for sexually transmitted infections in substance abuse treatment programs. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2003, 70: 93-9. 10.1016/S0376-8716(02)00361-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hwang LY, Ross MW, Zack C, Bull L, Rickman K, Holleman M: Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and associated risk factors among populations of drug abusers. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2000, 31: 920-6. 10.1086/318131.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lally MA, Alvarez S, Macnevin R, Cenedella C, Dispigno M, Harwell JI, Pugatch D, Flanigan TP: Acceptability of sexually transmitted infection screening among women in short-term substance abuse treatment. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 2002, 29: 752-5. 10.1097/00007435-200212000-00003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marx R, Aral SO, Rolfs RT, Sterk CE, Kahn JG: Crack, sex and STD. Sexually Transmitted Infection. 1991, 18: 92-101.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Crawford M, Lowe PC, Greene L, Brookings C: The prevalence of excessive alcohol consumption and the acceptability of brief advice in a sexual health clinic: cross sectional survey. Sexually Transmitted Infection. 2004, 80: 416-7. 10.1136/sti.2003.008938.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rashad I, Kaestner R: Teenage sex, drugs and alcohol use: problems identifying the cause of risky behaviours. Journal of Health Economics. 2004, 23: 493-503. 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2003.09.009.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Patton R, Hilton C, Crawford MJ, Touquet R: The Paddington Alcohol Test: A Short Report. Alcohol & Alcoholism. 2004, 39: 266-8. 10.1093/alcalc/agh049.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gossop M, Darke S, Griffiths P, Hando J, Powis B, Hall W, Strang J: The Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS): psychometric properties of the SDS in English and Australian samples of heroin, cocaine and amphetamine users. Addiction. 1995, 90: 607-14. 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1995.tb02199.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Martin G, Copeland J, Gates P, Gilmour S: The Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) in an adolescent population of cannabis users: Reliability, Validity and Diagnostic Cut Off. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2003, 83 (1): 90-93. 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2005.10.014.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Crawford MJ, Patton R, Touquet R, Drummond DC, Byford S, Barrett B, Reece B, Brown A, Henry JA: Screening and referral for brief intervention of alcohol misusing patients in an Accident and Emergency Department: A pragmatic randomised controlled trial. The Lancet. 2004, 364: 1334-9. 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17190-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Coulthard M, Farrell M, Singleton N, Meltzer H: Tobacco, Alcohol and drug use and mental health. 2002, London: Stationery OfficeGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.