Effect of LGG on pneumococcal adherence to epithelial cells. Pneumococcal adherence was determined when incubated with medium alone (Pnc), or with medium containing 100 U/ml heparin (Heparin), or ~5 x 106 CFU LGG (LGG low), or ~5 x 107 CFU LGG (LGG high) added one hour before (A), concurrently (B), or one hour after adding pneumococci (C). One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in adherence levels (P < 0.05) for all isolates except PMP812 (serotype 5) in the post-addition assay. For each isolate, Bonferroni’s post-test was used to compare heparin, LGG low, and LGG high to Pnc: *, P < 0.001; #, P < 0.05. Data are mean + SD (n≥3).