Infectious conjunctivitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a bathroom
© Eguchi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 25 September 2012
Accepted: 25 June 2013
Published: 1 July 2013
The elucidation of the routes of transmission of a pathogen is crucial for the prevention of infectious diseases caused by bacteria that are not a resident in human tissue. The purpose of this report is to describe a case of suture-related conjunctivitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa for which we identified the transmission route using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
A 38-year-old man, who had undergone surgery for glaucoma 2 years ago previously, presented with redness, discomfort, and mucopurulent discharge in the right eye. A 9–0 silk suture had been left on the conjunctiva. A strain of P. aeruginosa was isolated from a culture obtained from the suture, and the patient was therefore diagnosed with suture-related conjunctivitis caused by P. aeruginosa. The conjunctivitis was cured by the application of an antimicrobial ophthalmic solution and removal of the suture. We used PFGE to survey of the indoor and outdoor environments around the patient’s house and office in order to elucidate the route of transmission of the infection. Three strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from the patient’s indoor environment, and the isolate obtained from the patient’s bathroom was identical to that from the suture.
The case highlights the fact that an indoor environmental strain of P. aeruginosa can cause ocular infections.
KeywordsPseudomonas aeruginosa Conjunctivitis Bathroom Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis
The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative rod that is commonly isolated from aquatic and terrestrial environments. It is an established nosocomial pathogen in the field of hospital infection control [1–3]. The routes of transmission are well investigated epidemiologically, because it is responsible for severe infections in immunocompromised patients. However, in clinical ophthalmology, the transmission route of Pseudomonas aeruginos is not well investigated, even it is known to be able to cause keratitis, some strains produce biofilms on contact lenses [4, 5], and endophthalmitis caused by P. aeruginosa contracted from surgical equipment has been reported as a devastating complication after ocular surgery [6–8]. With regard to bacterial conjunctivitis in adults, it is most often caused by pathogens derived from the indigenous bacterial flora of the ocular surface. Therefore, P. aeruginosa, which is not a resident bacterium of the ocular surface, is rarely isolated from conjunctivitis cases except those of patients who have some sort of artificial devices in the eye [9–11].
Most bacterial conjunctivitis encountered in the clinical setting can be treated by an empiric choice of commercially available antimicrobial ophthalmic solutions without rigorous identification of the species of the pathogen, and the sporadic cases may go unnoticed unless an outbreak occurs. Most cases of exogenous conjunctivitis, such as that caused by P. aeruginosa, could be prevented by determination both of the origin and of the transmission route of the causative pathogen. Such prevention would contribute to the proper usage of antimicrobials in the field of ophthalmology. Moreover, it is important for the patients who have undergone intraocular surgery to understand the distribution and the route of transmission of P. aeruginosa in order to prevent devastating complications. Herein, we describe a case of suture-related conjunctivitis caused by P. aeruginosa after glaucoma surgery in which we elucidated the route of transmission using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Herein we reported for the first time that P. aeruginosa isolated from the ocular surface was acquired from the patient’s home environment. This suggests that the bacteria colonising in humid home environments such as the bathroom can infect ocular surfaces in association with biomaterials. Biomaterials such as sutures, punctual plugs, intraocular lenses, and contact lenses can serve as hotbeds for bacterial infections. Therefore, all clinical cases involving the use of biomaterials require regular follow-up. Although we did not examine the biofilm productivity of the strain isolated from this case, many Gram-negative rods, including P. aeruginosa, are known to be able to produce biofilms on the surfaces of biomaterials. Knowledge of the distribution and route of transmission of pathogenic microorganisms is important for infection control in patients with biomaterials. Biomaterials around an infectious focus should be removed immediately after detection of the infection if it is deemed necessary and feasible to do so.
P. aeruginosa endophthalmitis with disastrous results has been reported following intraocular surgery [7, 8], and in these cases the P. aeruginosa was determined to have been transmitted from some surgical equipments with which related to water-based supplies. However, the underlying cause of the pollution of the water was not identified. Infections of buckling devices caused by P. aeruginosa following retinal detachment surgery have also been described, although the origin and transmission route were not mentioned [9–11]. The shower environment has been described as a source of opportunistic pathogens , and we presume that these infections were likely to have been caused by strains of P. aeruginosa present in humid indoor areas in the home or hospital to which the patient was exposed. Considering that contaminated rooms may lead to hospital- and community-acquired infections, and also considering that P. aeruginosa is strongly associated with environmental contamination , disinfection or cleaning of humid home environments may help decrease the risk for infection by P. aeruginosa.
Precautionary protections of the eye from bacterial infections promoted by humid indoor conditions may be important. Removal of ophthalmic biomaterials immediately after their use and application of ophthalmic solutions that target Gram-negative rods derived from indoor humid environment should be considered for cases of conjunctivitis related with some artificial devices on the ocular surface.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for submission and publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor of this journal.
- Hota B: Contamination, disinfection, and cross-colonization: are hospital surfaces reservoirs for nosocomial infections?. Clin Infect Dis. 2004, 39: 1182-1189. 10.1086/424667.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Corona-Nakamura AL, Miranda-Novales MG, Leanos-Miranda B, Portillo-Gomez L, Hernadez-Chavez A, Anthor-Rendon J, Aguilar-Benavides S: Epidemiologic study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in critical patients and reservoirs. Arch Med Res. 2001, 32: 238-242. 10.1016/S0188-4409(01)00267-3.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yetkin G, Otlu B, Cicek A, Kuzucu C, Durmaz R: Clinical, microbiologic, and epidemiologic characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a University Hospital, Malatya, Turkey. Am J Infect Control. 2006, 34: 188-192. 10.1016/j.ajic.2005.11.010.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Szczotka-Flynn LB, Imamura Y, Chandra J, Yu C, Mukherjee PK, Pearlman E, Ghannoum MA: Increased resistance of contact lens-related bacterial biofilms to antimicrobial activity of soft contact lens care solutions. Cornea. 2009, 28: 18-26.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McLaughin-Borlace L, Stapleton F, Matheson M, Dart JKG: Bacterial biofilm on contact lens and lens storage cases in wearers with microbial keratitis. J Appl Microbiol. 1998, 84: 827-837. 10.1046/j.1365-2672.1998.00418.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ramappa M, Majji AB, Murthy SI, Balne PK, Nalamada S, Garudadri C, Mathai A, Gopinathan U, Garg P: An outbreak of acute post-cataract surgery Pseudomonas sp. endophthalmitis caused by contaminated hydrophilic intraocular lens solution. Ophthalmology. 2012, 119: 564-570. 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.09.031.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mateos I, Valencia R, Torres MJ, Cantos A, Conde M, Aznar J: Nosocomial outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006, 27: 1249-1251. 10.1086/508838.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Crucian M, Malena M, Amalfitano G, Monti P, Bonomi L: Molecular epidemiology in a cluster of cases of postoperative Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis. Clin Infect Dis. 1998, 26: 330-333. 10.1086/516292.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rich RM, Smiddy WE, Davis JL: Infectious scleritis after retinal surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008, 145: 695-699. 10.1016/j.ajo.2007.11.024.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chaudhry NA, Tabandeh H, Rosenfeld PJ, Miller D, Davis J: Scleral buckle infection with ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998, 116: 1251-PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wirostko WJ, Covert DJ, Han DP, Connor TB, Kim JE, Hammersley J, Lindgren K: Microbiological spectrum of organisms isolated from explanted scleral buckles. Ophthalmic Surg Laser Imaging. 2003, 40: 201-202.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ogushi Y, Eguchi H, Kuwahara T, Hayabuchi N, Kawabata K: Molecular genetic investigations of contaminated contact lens storage cases as reservoirs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2010, 54: 550-554. 10.1007/s10384-010-0874-1.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Anaissie EJ, Penzak SR, Dignani MC: The hospital water supply as a source of nosocomial infection: a plea for action. Arch Intern. 2002, 162: 1483-1492. 10.1001/archinte.162.13.1483.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.