Erosive potential of energy drinks on the dentine surface
© Pinto et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 13 November 2012
Accepted: 17 February 2013
Published: 19 February 2013
Considering the current high consumption of energy drinks, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of energy drinks in removing the smear layer and exposing dentinal tubules on root surface.
Dentine root surfaces were exposed using a diamond bur. Forty movements of scaling were performed in the area prepared in order to create a smear layer. One hundred and thirty specimens were obtained from 35 teeth. Specimens were randomly distributed into 12 groups (n = 10) and divided into subgroups according to the application: topical (n = 5) and friction (n = 5). Twelve energy drinks were evaluated: RedBull™, Burn™, TNT™, Flash Power™, Flying Horse™, Sports Drink™, Ionic™, Hot Power™, Army Power™, Gladiator™ and Bug™. Distilled water was used as a control group. The specimens were analysed by scanning electron microscopy.
Topical application: a significant influence of energy drinks on smear layer removal was found for FlyingHorse™ and Bug™ when compared with the control group. Friction application: significant smear layer removal was found for Burn™, FlyingHorse™, Gladiator™, SportsDrinks™, when compared with the control group. Comparing the different application forms, a statistically significant difference was found for Army Power™.
Considering the significant smear layer removal, energy drinks can be an important etiological factor for cervical dentine hypersensitivity.
Cervical hypersensitivity is a dental problem that has increased by several factors; one of them is due to the indiscriminate use of soft drinks [1–3]. Soft drink intake is the most important factor related to dentinal tubule exposure followed by dentine hypersensitivity, since the consumption of acidic drinks has increased considerably [4–6]. After root dentine exposition, dentine wear can be easily provoked by erosion and/or abrasion [7–10]. One important extrinsic factor in erosive tooth wear is the high consumption of energy drinks .
Energy drinks are basically soft drinks with some forms of vitamins and other chemicals that increase energy for a very short period . These drinks have been developed in order to increase physical resistance and the state of alertness. In addition, they increase concentration, stimulate metabolism and help to eliminate harmful substances from the body .
According to Cavalcanti et al. , energy drinks have a high erosive potential, as they have low pH and a high non-reducing sugar content. Nevertheless, this in vitro study assessed the physical-chemical characteristics of them; their influence on the tooth surface has not been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of energy drinks in removing smear layer and subsequent dentinal tubules exposure on root surface. The null hypothesis tested was that the energy drinks do not expose the dentinal tubules on the root surface.
This study was approved by the Sao Paulo State University – Araraquara Dental School (UNESP – FOAr) Ethical Committee (06534-9/2010).
Thirty-five third molar human teeth were used in this investigation. Teeth were obtained from the Human Teeth Bank of Sao Paulo State University – Araraquara Dental School.
Two parallel grooves 0.5 mm deep on the vestibular and lingual root surfaces of each tooth were performed: one at the cementoenamel junction and the other 4 mm apical to the CEJ. The area between the two grooves was flattened with the same bur (Diamond bur - 2135). Forty movements of scaling were performed in the area prepared, with a Gracey curette (Gracey Instruments™ ) in order to create a smear layer.
The roots were cross cut in the first groove, in order to remove the crown. Four dentine blocks, approximately 2 × 2 mm, were obtained from each tooth, two from the vestibular and two from the lingual surface. All dentine blocks were observed on stereomicroscope with × 25 magnification to check for the presence of cracks on their surfaces. After analysing the surfaces, twenty dentine blocks with presence of cracks were removed.
Specimens were randomly distributed into 12 groups (n = 10). Ten specimens were used in each group. The specimens were divided in subgroups according to the application: topical (n = 5) and friction (n = 5). Eleven energy drinks were evaluated: RedBull™ (RedBull GmbH, Austria), Burn™ (Coca-Cola), TNT™ (Refrix Ltda), Flash Power™ (Alflash Ltda), Flying Horse™ (NewAge Ltda), Sports Drink™ , Ionic™ (Capucci & Barra.com Ltda), Hot Power™ (Ultrapan Ltda), Army Power™ (Capucci & Barra.com Ltda), Gladiator™ (Coca-Cola) and Bug™ (Refrix, Ltda).
Distilled water was used as a control group in order to compare with the dentinal tubules exposure by energy drinks.
Topical Application: specimens were immersed for 5 minutes in the beverages, and rinsed with distilled water for 15 seconds.
Friction Application: specimens were immersed for 5 minutes in the beverages, brushed with an electric toothbrush for 30 seconds (friction), and rinsed with distilled water for 15 seconds.
pH evaluation at baseline
The pH of each beverage was determined in triplicate at room temperature using a pHmeter (AT-350, Sao Paulo, Brazil).
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
Grade 1 Dentinal tubules fully opened (Figure 1A).
Grade 2 Dentinal tubules partially opened (Figure 1B).
Grade 3 Traces of opened dentinal tubules (Figure 1C).
Grade 4 Dentinal tubules totally obliterated (Figure 1D).
A single examiner was calibrated by evaluating photomicrographs with predetermined scores in order to accurately measure the four types of dentinal tubules exposure. After calibration, a blinded examiner evaluated the photomicrographs that were evaluated three times at 24-hour intervals. Each sample received the final score that prevailed among the three readings and then intra-examiner reliability was calculated by comparing the three readings and the kappa test for agreement was 0.95.
The Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test was used to determine the difference among the groups for the Index of Smear Layer Removal. The Dunn’s multiple comparison test was used to perform pair-wise multiple comparisons. The differences between the application methods were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney test.
pH values of the energy drinks
pH ± SD
Control (Distilled water)
8.17 ± 0.12
3.81 ± 0.21
3.35 ± 0.13
2.92 ± 0.11
3.03 ± 0.13
2.88 ± 0.16
2.87 ± 0.17
2.79 ± 0.22
2.69 ± 0.18
2.85 ± 0.31
2.80 ± 0.24
2.52 ± 0.11
Smear layer removal data from topical and friction applications
Median (range; lower quartile, upper quartile)
Control (Distilled water)
4.0 (4–4; 4, 4)
4.0 (4–4; 4, 4)
3.0 (2–3; 2, 3)
3.0 (1–3; 1.5, 3)
2.0 (2–3; 2, 3)
2.0 (2–3; 2, 2.5)
2.0 (1–3; 1, 3)
3.0 (2–3; 2.5, 3)
3.0 (2–3; 2, 3)
2.0 (2–2; 2, 2.5)
3.0 (2–3; 2, 3.5)
2.0 (2–3; 2, 2.5)
3.0 (2–4; 2.5, 3.5)
3.0 (2–3; 2, 3)
3.0 (3–3; 3, 3)
3.0 (3–4; 3, 3.5)
4.0 (3–4; 3, 4)
p = 0.04
3.0 (2–3; 2, 3)
3.0 (2–4; 2.5, 3.5)
3.0 (2–3; 2.5, 3)
3.0 (1–4; 1.5, 4)
3.0 (2–4; 2.5, 4)
3.0 (3–3; 3, 3)
2.0 (1–2, 1, 2)
The consumption of energy drinks has increased considerably, mainly amongst young people who are the main consumers of these products [6, 11, 13] Thus, original research is required to evaluate the erosive potential of energy drinks, since acids in food and beverage products are one of the main factors related to cervical dentine hypersensitivity .
The dentine specimens were sectioned tangentially at root dentine to expose the dentinal tubules in the same way when they occur in patients with dental root exposure .
After periodontal treatment, an irregular and amorphous layer is created on the root surface called the smear layer. The smear layer can obliterate the dentinal tubules and the dentine fluid movement will be blocked or reduced considerably. The dentine fluid movement is responsible for painful transmission after a stimulus in cervical dentine hypersensitivity . In the present study, smear layer was created by hand instrumentation with periodontal curettes prior to acid drinks exposure.
Eleven different energy drinks were assessed for their erosive potential in dentine and compared with the control group (distilled water). Two different application forms were used: topical and friction. Topical application was used to evaluate the effect of energy drinks on the dentin surface covered with smear layer. Friction application has evaluated the effect of brushing performed immediately after application of the different drinks on the dentinal tubules exposure [14, 17]. The dentine specimens were kept immersed in acidic beverages for 5 min, as it is the time necessary for saliva to neutralize and/or remove the acid of the tooth surfaces .
Despite the dentine surface showing higher dentinal tubule exposure in specimens immersed in energy drinks, significant statistical differences were only found for Flyinghorse™ and Bug™ energy drinks in comparison with the control group (topical application). In relation to friction application, statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed comparing Burn™ , Flyinghorse™ , Gladiator™ and SportDrinks™ with the control group. According with our results, the null hypothesis tested was partially accepted.
Before immersing the specimens in the energy drinks, the pH were evaluated (Table 1). Although all the energy drinks evaluated have shown a pH below 5.5, which is considered critical for loss from enamel, mineral loss may begin even at higher pH . The lowest pH value was recorded for SportsDrinks™ , however, significant dentinal tubule exposure for this product was found only for the friction application.
The pH is an important factor that may influence dentine erosion. In addition, the pH is easily measured and frequently used to record the acidity of a product . However, pH values give only a measure of initial and dissociated hydrogen ion concentration, therefore, they do not indicate the presence of undissociated acid. Total titratable acidity is the more accurate measure of the total acid content of a drink .
The comparison between application forms has shown higher dentinal tubule exposure for the friction application, although a statistically significant difference was found only for Army Power™ energy drink.
Previous studies have shown that a surface demineralized by acid is vulnerable to toothbrushing, favouring tooth structure removal and dentinal tubule exposure [6, 17, 20]. Although acid diet associated with or without toothbrushing is able to provoke dentinal tubules exposure, comparison among different acid beverages is not always significant. It may occur due to acid features of each beverage. The type of acid may also influence the erosion potential .
Citric acid is also called INS 330 acidulant. This acid is one of the most erosive acids due to its chelating capacity, which is responsible for calcium sequestration from saliva and teeth. Therefore, beverages with low pH and containing citric acid are considered to have the most erosive capacity .
The erosive potential showed for energy beverages may be related to presence of citric acid, since all energy drinks evaluated in the present study contain this acid.
In order to reduce the harmful effects on teeth, components have been added to or eliminated from some acid beverages . One of the approaches has been the supplementation with sodium citrate .
Studies were conducted to assess the benefits of the acid reduction provided by adding citrate [23, 24]. The results show benefits when citrate is used in low concentrations, increasing the pH in the oral cavity, and it can also increase salivary flow, leading to fast elimination of acid after acidogenic challenge .
However, sodium citrate has also chelating properties, which could favor the erosive effects. On the other hand, the chelating properties of citrate may be of little importance at the low pH levels of acidic beverages . Future studies should be developed considering the effects of citrate as modifying agents on erosive potential, since it seems to be poorly understood.
Non-reducing sugars of energy drinks may be another factor that explains the difference found for the erosive potential of the energy drinks. Cavalcanti et al.  assessed the erosive potential of 9 different energy drinks. Of the drinks analysed (Bad Boy Power Drink™ ; Red Bull™ ; Red Bull Sugar free™ ; Flying Horse™ ; Flying Horse light™ ; Burn™ ; Night Power™ ; Flash Power™ ; 220V Sports Drink™ ), Flying Horse™ showed the highest non-reducing sugar (sucrose – 54.3%) in comparison with the other energy drinks evaluated. This may explain the erosive potential presented by the Flying Horse™ in this study, which showed a significant exposure of dentinal tubules even when it was evaluated topically .
Few studies have evaluated the erosive potential and physical-chemical characteristics of energy drinks [11, 12], which complicates the comparison of the present study with previous research and also the explanation of the results obtained. Thus, it is important to evaluate the composition of these substances, since the consumption of energy drinks has been increasing over the years.
FlyingHorse™ and Bug™ energy were significantly different from the control group when applied topically, while Burn™ , FlyingHorse™ , Gladiator™ and SportsDrinks™ were significantly different from control when applied by friction (P < 0.05). Comparison between two application forms revealed greater exposure of dentinal tubules when ArmyPower™ was applied by friction. Thus, it is possible to observe from our results the influence of energy drinks as an etiological factor for cervical dentine hypersensitivity.
Energy drinks can be an important etiological factor for cervical dentine hypersensitivity.
The authors thank the CAPES, FAPESP and FAPEMA for financial support.
- Rees JS, Addy M: A cross-sectional study of dentine hypersensitivity. J Clin Periodontol. 2002, 2: 997-1003.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pradeep AR, Sharma A: Comparison of clinical efficacy of a dentifrice containing calcium sodium phophosilicate to a dentifrice containing potassium nitrate and to a placebo on dentinal hypersensitivity: a randomized clinical trial. J Periodontol. 2010, 8: 1167-1173.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Margaritis V, Mamai-Homataa E, Koletsi-Kounari H, Polychronopoulou A: Evaluation of three different scoring systems for dental erosion: a comparative study in adolescents. J Dent. 2011, 39: 88-93. 10.1016/j.jdent.2010.10.014.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Corrâ FOB, Sampaio JEC, Rossa JRC, Orrico SRP: Influence of natural fruit juices in removing the smear layer from root surfaces: an in vitro study. JCDA: J Can Dental Assoc. 2004, 70: 697-702.Google Scholar
- Pinto SCS, Batitucci RG, Pinheiro MC, Zandim DL, Spin-Neto R, Sampaio JEC: Effect of an acid diet allied to sonic toothbrushing on root dentin permeability: an in vitro study. Br Dental J. 2010, 21: 390-395.Google Scholar
- Carvalho JM, Maia GA, Sousa PHM, Rodrigues S: Major compounds profiles in energy drinks: caffeine, taurine, guarana, and glucoronolactone. Rev Inst Adolfo Lutz. 2006, 65: 78-85.Google Scholar
- Addy M, Shellis RP: Interaction between attrition, abrasion and erosion in tooth wear. Monogr Oral Sci. 2006, 20: 17-31.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Barbosa CS, Kato MT, Buzalaf MAR: Effect of supplementation of soft drinks with green tea extract on their erosive potential against dentine. Aust Dental J. 2011, 56: 317-321. 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2011.01338.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hemingway CA, Parker DM, Addy M, Barbour ME: Erosion of enamel by non-carbonated soft drinks with and without toothbrushing abrasion. Brit dental J. 2006, 201: 447-450. 10.1038/sj.bdj.4814073.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lussi A, von Salis-Marincek M, Ganss C, Hellwig E, Cheaib Z, Jaeggi T: Clinical study monitoring the pH on tooth surfaces in patients with and without erosion. Caries Res. 2012, 46: 507-512. 10.1159/000339783.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cavalcanti AL, Costa Oliveira M, Florentino VG, dos Santos JA, Vieira FF, Cavalcanti CL: Short communication: in vitro assessment of erosive potential of energy drinks. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2010, 11: 254-257.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ballistreri MC, Corradi-Webster CM: Consumption of energy drinks among physical education students. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2008, 16: 558-564. 10.1590/S0104-11692008000700009.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Addy M: Clinical aspects of dentine hypersensitivity. Proc Finn Dental Soc. 1992, 88: 22-30.Google Scholar
- Zandim DL, Corrêa FOB, Sampaio JEC, Rossa JRC: The influence of vinegars on exposure of dentinal tubules: a SEM evaluation. Braz Oral Res. 2004, 18: 63-68. 10.1590/S1806-83242004000100012.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shellis RP, Barbour ME, Jones SB, Addy M: Effects of pH and acid concentration on erosive dissolution of enamel, dentine, and compressed hydroxyapatite. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010, 118: 475-482. 10.1111/j.1600-0722.2010.00763.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pashely DH: Smear layer: physiological considerations. Oper Dent. 1984, 3: 13-29.Google Scholar
- Zandim DL, Corrêa FO, Rossa Junior C, Sampaio JE: In vitro evaluation of the effect of natural orange juices on dentin morphology. Braz Oral Res. 2008, 22: 176-183. 10.1590/S1806-83242008000200014.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Amaechi BT, Higham SM: Eroded enamel lesion remineralization by saliva as a possible factor in the site-specificity of human dental erosion. Arch Oral Biol. 2001, 46: 697-703. 10.1016/S0003-9969(01)00034-6.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Edwards M, Creanor SL, Foye RH, Gilmour WH: Buffering capacities of soft drinks: the potential influence on dental erosion. J Oral Rehabili. 1999, 26: 923-927. 10.1046/j.1365-2842.1999.00494.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Petrou I, Heu R, Stranick M, Lavender S, Zaidel L, Cummins D, Sullivan RJ, Hsueh C, Gimzewski JK: A breakthrough therapy for dentin hypersensitivity: how dental products containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate work to deliver effective relief of sensitive teeth. J Clin Dent. 2009, 20: 23-31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burato EM, Andrade L, Rath IBS, Tames DR: Evaluation of the erosive potential of the Brazilian sport drinks to the dental hard tissues. Rev ABO Nac. 2002, 10: 109-112.Google Scholar
- Tahmassebi JF, Duggal MS, Malik-Kotru G, Curzon MEJ: Soft drinks and dental health: a review of the current literature. J Dent. 2006, 34: 2-11. 10.1016/j.jdent.2004.11.006.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pollard MA, Duggal MS, Curzon MEJ: The effect of different concentrations of citrate in drinks on plaque pH. Caries Res. 1993, 27: 191-194. 10.1159/000261540.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Duggal MS, Tahmassebi JF, Pollard MA: Effect of addition of 0.103% citrate to a blackcurrant drink on plaque pH in vivo. Caries Res. 1995, 29: 75-79. 10.1159/000262044.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.