Intestinal helminth infections among inmates in Bedele prison with emphasis on soil-transmitted helminths
© Terefe et al. 2015
Received: 7 November 2014
Accepted: 30 November 2015
Published: 14 December 2015
Intestinal helminths infect more than two billion people worldwide. They are common in developing countries where sanitary facilities are inadequate. There is scarcity of documented data on the magnitude of intestinal helminths among inmates in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among inmates in Bedele prison, south-western Ethiopia.
A cross-sectional study involving 234 inmates in Bedele prison was conducted in April 2012. Socio-demographic data was collected from each study participant using semi-structured questionnaire. Fresh stool specimens were collected and processed using modified McMaster technique.
At least one species of intestinal helminth was identified in 111 (47.4 %) of the inmates. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite isolated, followed by the hookworms. Most of the cases of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) were light infections. Untrimmed hand fingernails was significantly associated with A. lumbricoides infection (AOR 0.383, 95 % CI 0.200–0.731).
Intestinal helminths are common among the inmates in Bedele prison. Health information should be given to the inmates on proper personal hygiene practices with emphasis on trimming of hand fingernails. Monitoring helminth infections in the inmate population is required.
Intestinal helminth infections are among the most common infections in developing countries. The soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are wide spread in areas where access to sanitary facilities is limited. Globally, an estimated 4.5 billion individuals are at risk of STH infections. The STHs Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) infect an estimated 819.0 million, 464.6 million and 438.9 million people worldwide, respectively. The vast majority of the STH infections occur in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas [1, 2].
Soil-transmitted helminths impair health of the infected individuals in several ways. These include impact on digestion and absorption of foods , physical fitness and loss of appetite , cognitive function , school performance and attendance [6, 7]. In adults, they are associated with reduced productivity and work capacity . The STHs pose huge disease burden, majority of the disease burden being due to the hookworms .
Determining local magnitude of STHs and assessment of associated risk factors helps targeted intervention activities to be carried out. In Ethiopia, several epidemiological studies have been conducted on STHs, often focusing on preschool and school children [8–11]. Most of these studies reported high prevalence of STHs. Studies on magnitude of STHs in inmates in Ethiopia are scarce; while various prevalence rates were reported in some developing countries [12–14]. Inmates in developing countries are likely vulnerable to infectious diseases as a result of overcrowding and inadequate health care services. Although helminth infections are very common in Ethiopia, the magnitude of infection is not well explored in the inmate population. Scarcity of published reports on magnitude of STH infections in inmates in Ethiopia initiated us to carry out this study.
A cross sectional study was conducted to determine prevalence and associated risk factors of STHs in inmates in Bedele prison in April 2012. The town is located 483 kms south-west of the capital Addis Ababa. Administratively, the town is divided into four kebeles (smallest administrative units in Ethiopia). The district is predominately rural and the livelihood of the inhabitants mainly depends on subsistent farming. According to the 2007 Central Statistical Agency census report, the projected total population of the district is 139,425 . During the study period, the prison houses a total of 600 inmates. In the town, there was one district hospital recently established, one health centre and several private clinics. Located at average altitude of 2000 m above sea level, Bedele town has temperature ranging from 20 to 28 °C.
Sample size and sampling technique
Sample size for the study was determined using the general formula for single population proportion, assuming: expected prevalence (p) of 50 % at 95 % confidence level. Since the source population were a total of 600 inmates during the study period, finite population correction formula was utilized. Finally, the sample size calculated was a total of 234 individuals. Study participants were selected by systematic sampling from list of the inmates.
Data on socio-demography and predisposing factors were collected using semi-structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was first prepared in English and translated to the local language (Afan Oromo). The questionnaire addressed socio-demographic information and personal hygienic practices including: hand fingernail trimming status and hand washing practice before meal among others.
Moreover, single, fresh stool specimen was collected from each study participant and processed by modified McMaster technique for faecal egg count as described earlier . Briefly, 2 g fresh stool samples were homogenized in 30 ml of floatation solution (saturated sodium chloride solution) and poured through mesh three times. The faecal debris was squeezed after the samples were sieved for the third time. The two chambers of McMaster slide were filled with aliquot of the sample (2 × 0.15 ml), and eggs of each STH encountered were counted using 100× magnification of the microscope. Finally, the egg per gram (epg) of stool of each STH was obtained by multiplying the total number of STH eggs counted by 50.
Infection intensity class of the STHs was determined by faecal egg count threshold set by the World Health Organization . Accordingly, infection of A. lumbricoides was considered light, moderate and heavy when the egg count was 1–4999, 5000–49,999 and >49,999 epg, respectively. T. trichiura infection was considered light, moderate and heavy when the egg count was 1–999, 1000–9999 and >9999 epg, respectively. The classification for hookworm infection intensity was 1–1999, 2000–3999 and >3999 epg for light, moderate and heavy infections, respectively.
Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 statistical software package. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean and range) were used to summarize the socio-demographic profile of the study participants. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were utilized to assess association of the outcome helminth infection with independent variables. The independent variables included in the model include gender, educational status, residence and occupation before imprisonment, duration of stay in the prison, trimming pattern of hand fingernails and hand washing pattern before meal. p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
The study was ethically approved from Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Pathology, Jimma University. Permission was obtained from the prison administration after explaining purpose of the study and procedures of data collection. Written consent was obtained from each study participant before data collection. Inmates who were positive for intestinal helminth(s) were treated for free according to the national guideline.
Description of the study participants
Distribution of helminth infection with socio-demographic characteristics among inmates in Bedele prison, April 2012
Age group in years
Residence before imprisonment
Duration in the prison
Occupation before imprisonment
Prevalence and intensity of helminth infections
The overall prevalence of helminth infection was 47.4 %. Five species of intestinal helminths were identified. The most predominant helminth encountered in this study was A. lumbricoides, which accounted for 42.6 % of the helminths identified. Forty-eight (32.4 %) and 32 (21.6 %) of the helminths identified were the hookworms and T. trichiura, respectively. Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis nana were identified in four and one inmate, respectively.
Thirty-three of the helminth infected individuals (29.7 %) had multiple helminth infections. The combination of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura dominated the cases of multiple infections, followed by A. lumbricoides and the hookworms. Moreover, four individuals were infected with A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and the hookworms.
Intensity of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworm mono-infections among inmates in Bedele prison, April 2012
Intensity of infection
Geometric mean (EPG)
Factors associated with helminth infections
Univariate analyses of factors associated with intestinal helminth infection among inmates in Bedele prison, April 2012
COR (95 % CI)
Residence before imprisonment
Occupation before imprisonment
Duration of stay in the prison
Hand washing before meal
On the other hand, more than half (56.0 %) of the study participants had untrimmed hand fingernails at the point of data collection. Of these, 75 (57.3 %) were positive for intestinal helminths. There was significantly higher prevalence of intestinal helminths among inmates with untrimmed hand fingernails (COR 0.401, 95 % CI 0.235–0.684) compared to inmates with trimmed fingernails. Moreover, prevalence of intestinal helminths among inmates within the first two years of prison was significantly higher than the prevalence among inmates who served more than two years (COR 0.294, 95 % CI 0.105–0.826) (Table 3).
Thirty-seven (15.8 %) of the study participants responded that they do not wear shoes at all. Of these, 21.6 % were positive for the hookworms. In those who responded to wear shoes (84.2 %), prevalence of hookworm was (11.2 %). Prevalence of hookworm infection did not show significant difference between inmates who do not wear shoes and those who wear shoes.
Factors associated with A. lumbricoides infection among inmate in Bedele prison, April 2012
A. lumbricoides a
COR (95 % CI)
AOR (95 % CI)
Residence before imprisonment
Occupation before imprisonment
Duration of stay in the prison
Finger nail status
Hand washing before meal
The major aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminths among inmates in Bedele prison. Accordingly, 47.4 % of the inmates were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal helminth. The prevalence of intestinal helminths obtained in this study is slightly lower than the prevalence recently reported from Shewa Robit . At least one species of intestinal helminth was reported in 58.7 % of the inmates in Showa Robit prison in Ethiopia. Compared to a study done on the general population in south-west Ethiopia , in which more than half of the studied population had been found to harbour intestinal helminths, the prevalence in this study is lower. Contrary to the prevalence of intestinal helminths reported in a study done among mothers in Butajira in Ethiopia  and inmates in Owerri prison , the prevalence obtained in this study is slightly higher.
Despite the lower prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections compared to most of the studies, nearly half the inmate population harboured at least one species of the parasite. This calls for targeted interventions to be carried out to prevent infection of the inmates with the intestinal nematodes. Although the impact of STHs is remarkably higher in children , they may also affect productivity of the inmates . Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common STH in Ethiopia. In this study it was detected in 26.9 % of the inmates. This magnitude is lower than an earlier report of 40.9 % prevalence among urban dwellers in Jimma , but higher than the study done in Butajira (8.8 %) . The prevalence of hookworm infection in this study (20.5 %) is comparable with the one reported in the previous study in Jimma town (17.5 %). The STHs and other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are common in Ethiopia. It is estimated that Ethiopia is among the top three countries to have the highest number of NTD cases .
To identify factors associated with STH infections, bivariate and multivariable analyses were carried out. Bivariate analysis revealed that untrimmed hand fingernails and duration of imprisonment of less than 2 years were significantly associated with intestinal helminth infections. Transmission of intestinal parasites in general is effected by direct or indirect contamination with human faeces. Untrimmed fingernails are difficult to clean and may harbour parasites stages in the dirt . Positive association of untrimmed fingernails with intestinal helminth infection was reported elsewhere . However, in this study, no single variable was identified as predictor of intestinal helminth infection among the inmates. It has to be considered as a limitation that the risk factors of intestinal helminth infections assessed in this study are not exhaustive, and further study should consider all the possible risk factors of STH infection.
Prevalence of hookworm among inmates who responded wearing shoes and those who responded not wearing shoes was similar. Contrary to this, a previous study done in south-west Ethiopia reported a significant protective role of wearing shoes to hookworm infection . The types of shoes the inmates wear, which was not explored in this study, may account for the difference.
Majority (65.8 %) of the study participants were within their first year of prison term. It had been observed that prevalence of STHs was higher among inmates who were in their first 2 years in the prison compared to those who served for more than 2 years. The difference was significant by the bivariate analysis. It appears that most of the inmates could be infected before imprisonment. Our study is limited by lack of comparative group. Hence, it is not possible to conclude whether the inmates were at a significantly higher risk of intestinal helminth infection compared to the general population.
Majority of the cases of the STHs in this study were light and moderate infections, which is in agreement with most other studies [27, 28]. Soil-transmitted helminth infections tend to be aggregated, with smaller proportion of individuals harbouring high infection intensity.
Nearly half of the inmates in Bedele prison were infected with at least one species of intestinal helminth. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common STH detected among the inmates, and it was positively associated with untrimmed fingernails. Creating awareness on the modes of transmission of intestinal helminths to the inmate population is recommended. Moreover, regular parasitological examination of stool samples of inmates in Bedele prison is required.
BT and AE conceived the study, involved in data acquisition, analysis, and drafted the manuscript. EZ involved in data analysis, and critically reviewed the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
We are grateful to the prison administration and the study participants. We thank Jimma University for material support.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Pullan R, Smith J, Jasrasaria R, Brooker S. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:37.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization (WHO). Intestinal worms, WHO; 2012.Google Scholar
- Crompton DW, Nesheim MC. Nutritional impact of intestinal helminthiasis during the human life cycle. Annu Rev Nutr. 2002;22:35–59.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stephenson LS, Latham MC, Adams EJ, Kinoti SN, Pertet A. Physical fitness, growth and appetite of Kenyan school boys with hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infections are improved four months after a single dose of albendazole. J Nutr. 1993;123:1036–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nokes C, Grantham-McGregor SM, Sawyer AW, Cooper ES, Robinson BA, Bundy DA. Moderate to heavy infections of Trichuris trichiura affect cognitive function in Jamaican school children. Parasitology. 1992;104:539–47.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization (WHO). Deworming for health and development: report of the third global meeting of the partners for parasite control. WHO; 2005.Google Scholar
- Bleakley H. Disease and development: evidence from hookworm eradication in the American South. Q J Econ. 2007;122:73–117.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nyantekyi LA, Legesse M, Belay M, Tadesse K, Manaye K, Macias C, Erko B. Intestinal parasitic infections among under-five children and maternal awareness about the infections in Shesha Kekele, Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2010;24:185–90.Google Scholar
- Alemu A, Atnafu A, Addis Z, Shiferaw Y, Teklu T, Mathewos B, Birhan W, Gebretsadik S, Gelaw B. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in Zarima town, northwest Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:189.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Worku N, Erko B, Torben W, Belay M, Kasssu A, Fetene T, Huruy K. Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections in school children of Gondar, North West Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J. 2009;47:9–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ayalew A, Debebe T, Worku A. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasites among Delgi school children, North Gondar, Ethiopia. J Parasitol Vector Biol. 2011;3:75–81.Google Scholar
- Amuga G, Usman D, Onwuliri C. Human intestinal parasites among inmates of Keffi prison, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. IJONAS. 2006;2:7–11.Google Scholar
- Schapiro MM, Molina JJ. Intestinal parasitism among the inmates of the Central Penitentiary, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1959;53:270–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Okolie NJC. Intestinal parasites distribution among inmates of Owerri prison. Internet J Parasitic Dis. 2010;4:8.Google Scholar
- Central Statistical Agency (Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia). The 2007 population and housing census of Ethiopia, result for Oromia region. Addis Ababa: Central Statistical Agency; 2010.Google Scholar
- Vercruysse J, Behnke JM, Albonico M, Ame SM, Angebault C, Bethony JM, Engels D, Guillard B, Nguyen TV, Kang G, Kattula D, Kotze AC, McCarthy JS, Levecke B. Assessment of the anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole in school children in seven countries where soil-transmitted helminths are endemic. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e948.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines for the evaluation of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis at community level. A guide for control programme managers. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1998.Google Scholar
- Mamo H. Intestinal parasitic infections among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa Robit, north-central Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2014;9:e99559.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mengistu A, Gebre-Selassie S, Kassa T. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among urban dwellers in southwest Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2007;21:12–7.Google Scholar
- Belyhun Y, Medhin G, Amberbir A, Erko B, Hanlon C, Alem A, Venn A, Britton J, Davey G. Prevalence and risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth infection in mothers and their infants in Butajira, Ethiopia: a population based study. BMC. 2010;10:21.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ahmed A, Al-Mekhlafi H, Al-Adhroey A, Ithoi I, Abdulsalam A, Surin J. The nutritional impacts of soil-transmitted helminths infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in rural Malaysia. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:119.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guyatt H. Do intestinal nematodes affect productivity in adulthood? Parasitol Today. 2000;16:153–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Deribe K, Meribo K, Gebre T, Hailu A, Ali A, Aseffa A, Davey G. The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:240.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Suriptiastuti J, Manan WS. Intestinal parasites from fingernails of sidewalk food vendors. Univ Med. 2011;30:120–5.Google Scholar
- Abera B, Alem G, Yimer M, Herrador Z. Epidemiology of soil-transmitted helminths, Schistosoma mansoni, and haematocrit values among schoolchildren in Ethiopia. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2013;7:253–60.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Erosie L, Merid Y, Ashiko A, Ayine M, Balihu A, Muzeyin S, Teklemariam S, Sorsa S. Prevalence of hookworm infection and hemoglobin status among rural elementary school children in Southern Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2002;16:113–5.Google Scholar
- Zulkifli A, Khairul AA, Atiya AS, Abdullah B, Yano A. The prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis among pre-school children in Orang Asli resettlement villages in Kelantan. Med J Malaysia. 1999;54:453–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Smith HM, Dekaminsky R, Niwas S, Soto R, Jolly P. Prevalence and intensity of infections of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and associated socio-demographic variables in four rural Honduran communities. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2001;96:303–14.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar