Occlusive bandaging of wounds with decreased circulation promotes growth of anaerobic bacteria and necrosis: case report
© The Author(s) 2016
Received: 2 April 2016
Accepted: 4 August 2016
Published: 8 August 2016
Topical occlusive/semi-occlusive dressings that induce a damp and trapped environment are widely used in wound treatment. Subjecting the wound with impaired circulation to such trapped/air-free environment potentiates the growth of anaerobic bacteria and risk for serious infection.
We present a case of previously healthy Swedish male that had a muscle contusion after heavy trauma that induced impaired circulation. The application of an occlusive bandage to the post-traumatic wound on the patient resulted in a poly-microbial anaerobic infection and necrosis. These complications were treated successfully with antibiotics and open dressing of the wound.
The pathophysiology of difficult- to- treat ulcers should be reviewed by the physician and occlusive dressing should be avoided when treating wounds with impaired circulation.
KeywordsPoly microbial Occlusive bandage Anaerobic infection Wound care
Subjecting wounds to an occlusive trapped/air-free environment potentiates the growth of anaerobic bacteria, which can result in significant sepsis . In a report by Mousa , study of 127 cases of burn wound infection revealed that 55.1 % of ulcers were infected with anaerobic bacteria. Patients with openly dressed wounds recovered more quickly from anaerobic bacterial infections than patients with occlusive wound dressings (P < 0.01). Pressure ulcers are also susceptible to infection by biofilm-growing aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, the biofilm formation on the wound being the main reason for its delayed healing . Survey of bacterial diversity in chronic wounds using pyrosequencing  showed that 62 % of the bacterial populations in pressure ulcers were identified as obligate anaerobes.
The present case report describes a post-traumatic wound complicated with polymicrobial anaerobic infection and necrosis. We aim to emphasize the importance of the assessment of pathophysiology of wounds in order to gain a better understanding of the wound’s microbiota and recommendation of appropriate wound dressings by the physician before their routine application by medical assistants.
The local status motivated an ulcer revision and debridement of muscle tissue necrosis. However, there was no sign of acute inflammation in the ulcer area and with respect to the severe necrosis and significant growth of anaerobic bacteria together with gram-positive bacteria in a biofilm [5, 6], there was a risk of developing a larger ulcer area with impaired healing. The clinical status of patient was stable. Intravenous meropenem (3 × 1 g) was started immediately after cultures from blood and ulcer secretion were secured. A culture from the ulcer secretion revealed growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus beta hemolytic group G, Clostridium innocuum, and Bacterioides thetaiotaomicron. The ulcer was treated conservatively with the local application of an antibiotic gel containing 250 mg vancomycin and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF in 100 IU antithrombin III Baxter)  plus sodium chloride for 2 days, followed by antithrombin III plus sodium chloride gel for 5 days. The wound dressing comprised sterile cotton compresses that were changed daily during the first week.
Anaerobic bacteria are a common cause of infections, some of which can be serious and life-threatening . Because of their fastidious nature, anaerobes are hard to isolate and are often not recovered from infected sites. The delayed or inappropriate therapy against these organisms may lead to failures in eradication of these infections . Clostridium innocuum is a relatively antimicrobial-resistant, frequently misidentified anaerobe that has been associated with bacteremia . Clostridial myonecrosis is a rapidly progressive disease characterized by muscle necrosis and systemic toxicity [11, 12]. In a 1997 report, Mousa found that Bacteroides species were isolated from 14 of 17 cases with burn wounds that developed septic shock, and were also recovered from four patients who had anaerobic infection alone .
The patient in the present case had a muscle contusion after heavy trauma that induced impaired circulation and was susceptible to a trapped, air-free environment under an occlusive dressing. The discolored subcutaneous tissue, odorous secretion, slightly increased acute phase proteins, and growth of S. aureus, Streptococcus beta hemolytic group G, C. innocuum, and B. thetaiotaomicron might indicate a serious infection and risk for deleterious consequences. However, because of the patient’s immune competence and appropriate antibiotic therapy, he survived this life-threatening situation.
Wounds with impaired circulation are highly vulnerable to infection. Anaerobic and gram-positive bacteria are over-presenting microorganisms in development of biofilms in such wounds. Occlusive dressing should be avoided when treating wounds with impaired circulation such as after heavy trauma, burn ulcers or pressure ulcers. The conventional open clean cotton dressings are recommended in such cases.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images.
The medical assistants at the Department of Infectious Diseases University Hospital in Linköping have performed the nursing for the patient. The report has been supported for language editing by PEAS Institut in Linköping.
The author declares that he has no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Chester DL, Waters R. Adverse alteration of wound flora with topical negative-pressure therapy: a case report. Br J Plast Surg. 2002;55(6):510–5111.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mousa HA. Aerobic, anaerobic and fungal burn wound infections. J Hosp Infect. 1997;37(4):317–23.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Donelli G, Vuotto C. Biofilm-based infections in long-term care facilities. Future Microbiol. 2014;9(2):175–88.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dowd SE, Sun Y, Secor PR, Rhoads DD, Olcott BM, James GA, Olcott RD. Survey of bacterial diversity in chronic wounds using pyrosequencing, DGGE, and full ribosome shotgun sequencing. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:43.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Evers F, Lönn J, Wu C, Nayeri F. Periodontitis, an often-overlooked reservoir for bacteria, in a patient with decubital ulcer. Clin Microbiol. 2015;4:1.Google Scholar
- Penhallow K. A review of studies that examine the impact of infection on the normal wound-healing process. J Wound Care. 2005;14(3):123–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lönn J, Almroth G, Brudin L, Nayeri F. An antithrombin III product containing biologically active hepatocyte growth factor may be beneficial in deep ulcer infections. Cytokine. 2012;60(2):478–86.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hentges DJ. The anaerobic microflora of the human body. Clin Infect Dis. 1993;164:S175–80.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Green RJ, Dafoe DC, Raffin TA. Necrotizing fasciitis. Chest. 1996;110(1):219–29.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Castiglioni B, Gautam A, Citron DM, Pasculle W, Goldstein EJ, Strollo D, Jordan M, Kusne S. Clostridium innocuum bacteremia secondary to infected hematoma with gas formation in a kidney transplant recipient. Transpl Infect Dis. 2003;5(4):199–202.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Langhan M, Arnold L. Clostridial myonecrosis in an adolescent male. Pediatrics. 2005;116(5):e735–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Garssen FP, Goslings JC, Bouman CS, Beenen LF, Visser CE, de Jong VM. Necrotising soft-tissue infections: diagnostics and treatment. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2013;157(31):A6031.PubMedGoogle Scholar