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Table 1 Key concepts identified

From: Cross-cultural survey development: The Colon Cancer Screening Behaviors Survey for South Asian populations

Key concepts
Scoping study [9]
Key concepts
Focus group study [10]
Conceptual definition Candidate measures*
Low self-perceived risk of CRC
Not a risk: Most prevalent in western populations
Not necessary—no symptoms
Lack of knowledge of risk
Screening not necessary: No symptoms or healthy
Perceived susceptibility [HBM]
Is concerned with the self-perceived risk of a diagnosis of CRC
Leung et al. [46]
Ozsoy et al. [47]
Fear of cancer and diagnosis
CRC not curable
Consequences of cancer (stigma)
Cancer is scary: Fear associated with test or waiting for results, and diagnosis
Consequences of cancer (bring on illness or poor outcomes)
Perceived severity [HBM]
An individual’s belief of the serious nature of a CRC, its impact (medical, clinical, social, and physical) and evaluation if not treated
Leung et al. [46]
Ozsoy et al. [47]
Screening increases chance of survival or cure Early detection is good
Start treatment soon
Better survival and cure
Screening reduces worry
Perceived benefits [HBM]
An individual’s belief that a change of behaviour results in a benefit; thus reducing the threat of CRC. This could relate to health and social consequences (i.e. detect polyp early, reduced worry or appease family by doing screening), which can also influence decision-making
Leung et al. [46]
Ozsoy et al. [47]
Rawl et al. [45]
Lack of knowledge—not heard about cancer, risks or screening, and do not know how to do test
Fear, nervous, worry, pain, embarrassment, or unpleasant
Language, cost, time, no transportation
Lack of physician recommendation
Lack knowledge: Not heard about CRC, risks, or screening
Aversion to collecting stool
Language of physician
Perceived barriers [HBM]
Is linked to factors that impede decisions to act by having CRC screening; the pros and cons are weighed
Leung et al. [46]
Ozsoy et al. [47]
Rawl et al. [45]
Low confidence in completing screening
Confidence to do test
  Perceived self-efficacy [HBM]
An individual’s confidence in the ability to complete a home stool test or preparation for colonoscopy
Flight et al. [48]
Family as central—provide advice and support
Loss of social support
Physician recommendation
Family and friends
Family physician, nurse practitioner or other HCP Physician recommendation, responsibility, explanation and enforcement
Subjective norm [TPB]
The individual’s perception of others expectations of performing CRC screening, and the ability of the individual to comply with others
Flight et al. [48]
Ozsoy et al. [47]
Screening for breast, cervical and CRC low among SA immigrants
Not heard of or had cancer screening
Not heard of CRC, risks and screening
Not had CRC screening (FOBT)
Self-report information that reflects having heard of and/or use of the home stool test and colonoscopy screening. Plans to have CRC screening
Vernon et al. [49]
  1. Note Rawl et al. [45] modified perceived benefits and barriers from Champion’s [50] breast cancer screening measures. Leung et al. [46] and Ozsoy et al. [47] used previously adapted CRC screening measures [32, 43] originally developed as breast cancer screening measures from Champion [51] and Champion and Scott [52]. Flight et al. [48] utilized prior measures drawn from Tiro et al. [53] and Vernon et al. [54] originally based on a number of health behaviour theories including the HBM [29] and TPB [30]. Vernon et al. [49] developed self-report measures for CRC screening awareness and adherence
  2. * papers with measures used emerged from prior studies