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Table 3 Determinants of correct knowledge about tuberculosis transmission among participants by univariate and multivariable analyses

From: Tuberculosis knowledge, misconceptions/myths in adults: findings from Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia and Zambia Demographic Health Surveys (2013–2016)

Variable Unadjusted OR (95% CI) P-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) P-value
Age
 > 40 1   1  
 > 25–40 1.10 (1.04–1.16) < 0.001 1.04 (0.98–1.11) 0.186
 ≤ 25 1.16 (1.09–1.22) < 0.001 1.08 (1.00–1.16) 0.045
Gender
 Female 1    
 Male 1.11 (1.08–0.16) < 0.001 1.19 (1.14–1.25) < 0.001
Residence
 Urban 1    
 Rural 0.86 (0.82–0.89) < 0.001 1.23 (1.16–1.31) < 0.001
Highest education level
 None 1    
 Primary 1.31 (1.21–1.42) < 0.001 1.26 (1.15–1.37) < 0.001
 Secondary 1.86 (1.72–2.02) < 0.001 1.74 (1.58–1.92) < 0.001
 Higher 2.43 (2.16–2.73) < 0.001 2.03 (1.77–2.34) < 0.001
Marital status
 Never in Union 1    
 Married 0.96 (0.92–1.00) 0.059 1.08 (1.02–1.15) 0.01
 Living with partner 0.90 (0.81–1.00) 0.055 0.96 (0.83–1.09) 0.505
 Widowed 1.01 (0.88–1.16) 0.908 1.12 (0.96–1.31) 0.151
 Divorced 0.88 (0.79–0.99) 0.031 1.06 (0.93–1.20) 0.406
 Separated 0.90 (0.79–1.02) 0.102 0.99 (0.85–1.14) 0.851
Religion
 No religion 1    
 Other 0.90 (0.71–1.13) 0.354 0.72 (0.56–0.91) 0.006
 Other christian 1.02 (0.82–1.27) 0.877 0.79 (0.63–0.99) 0.043
 Pentecostal 1.77 (1.37–2.27) 0.000 1.30 (1.00–1.69) 0.049
 Protestant or anglican or methodist 0.76 (0.61–0.94) 0.010 0.58 (0.46–0.73) < 0.000
 Roman catholic 0.94 (0.75–1.16) 0.553 0.71 (0.57–0.89) 0.003
Frequency of reading newspaper or magazine
 Not at all 1    
 Less than once a week 1.27 (1.20–1.34) < 0.001 1.05 (0.99–1.12) 0.096
 At least once a week 1.34 (1.26–1.42) < 0.001 1.08 (1.00–1.15) 0.042
 Almost everyday 1.28 (1.17–1.41) < 0.001 1.10 (0.99–1.22) 0.078
Frequency of listening to the radio
 Not at all 1    
 Less than once a week 1.10 (1.04–1.17) < 0.001 1.04 (0.97–1.11) 0.278
 At least once a week 1.38 (1.31–1.45) < 0.001 1.19 (1.12–1.26) < 0.000
 Almost everyday 1.18 (1.11–1.25) < 0.001 1.15 (1.07–1.23) < 0.000
Frequency of watching television
 Not at all 1    
 Less than once a week 1.18 (1.11–1.25) < 0.001 1.04 (0.97–1.12) 0.258
 At least once a week 1.41 (1.33–1.50) < 0.001 1.05 (0.98–1.14) 0.178
 Almost everyday 1.19 (1.12–1.27) < 0.001 0.91 (0.83–0.99) 0.033
SES
 Poorest 1    
 Poorer 1.27 (1.19–1.35) < 0.001 1.20 (1.12–1.29) < 0.001
 Middle 1.38 (1.29–1.47) < 0.001 1.30 (1.21–1.39) < 0.001
 Richer 1.53 (1.43–1.63) < 0.001 1.43 (1.32–1.54) < 0.001
 Richest 2.00 (1.87–2.13) < 0.001 1.74 (1.58–1.91) < 0.001