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Table 3 STROBE statement—checklist of items that should be included in reports of cross-sectional studies [32]

From: Influence of sexual maturation status on the relationship between body adiposity indicators and age: a cross-sectional study

  Item no. Recommendation Pages
Title and abstract 1 (a) Indicate the study’s design with a commonly used term in the title or the abstract 2
  (b) Provide in the abstract an informative and balanced summary of what was done and what was found 2
Background/rationale 2 Explain the scientific background and rationale for the investigation being reported 3
Objectives 3 State specific objectives, including any pre-specified hypotheses 3
Study design 4 Present key elements of study design early in the paper 4
Setting 5 Describe the setting, locations, and relevant dates, including periods of recruitment, exposure, follow-up, and data collection 4
Participants 6 (a) Give the eligibility criteria and the sources and methods of selection of participants 4
Variables 7 Clearly define all outcomes, exposures, predictors, potential confounders, and effect modifiers. Give diagnostic criteria, if applicable 4–5
Data sources/measurement 8* For each variable of interest, give sources of data and details of methods of assessment (measurement). Describe comparability of assessment methods if there is more than one group 5
Bias 9 Describe any efforts to address potential sources of bias
Study size 10 Explain how the study size was arrived at 4–5
Quantitative variables 11 Explain how quantitative variables were handled in the analyses. If applicable, describe which groupings were chosen and why 4–5
Statistical methods 12 (a) Describe all statistical methods, including those used to control for confounding 5
  (b) Describe any methods used to examine subgroups and interactions 5
  (c) Explain how missing data were addressed 5
  (d) If applicable, describe analytical methods taking account of sampling strategy 5
  (e) Describe any sensitivity analyses 5
Participants 13* (a) Report numbers of individuals at each stage of study—e.g., numbers potentially eligible, examined for eligibility, confirmed eligible, included in the study, completing follow-up, and analyzed 7
  (b) Give reasons for non-participation at each stage 4–5
  (c) Consider use of a flow diagram
Descriptive data 14* (a) Give characteristics of study participants (e.g., demographic, clinical, social) and information on exposures and potential confounders 6
  (b) Indicate number of participants with missing data for each variable of interest
Outcome data 15* Report numbers of outcome events or summary measures 6
Main results 16 (a) Give unadjusted estimates and, if applicable, confounder-adjusted estimates and their precision (e.g., 95% confidence interval). Make clear which confounders were adjusted for and why they were included 6
  (b) Report category boundaries when continuous variables were categorized 6
  (c) If relevant, consider translating estimates of relative risk into absolute risk for a meaningful time period 6
Other analyses 17 Report other analyses done—e.g., analyses of subgroups and interactions, and sensitivity analyses 6
Key results 18 Summarize key results with reference to study objectives 7
Limitations 19 Discuss limitations of the study, taking into account sources of potential bias or imprecision. Discuss both direction and magnitude of any potential bias
Interpretation 20 Give a cautious overall interpretation of results considering objectives, limitations, multiplicity of analyses, results from similar studies, and other relevant evidence 7–8
Generalizability 21 Discuss the generalizability (external validity) of the study results 7–8
Other information
Funding 22 Give the source of funding and the role of the funders for the present study and, if applicable, for the original study on which the present article is based 09
  1. An Explanation and Elaboration article discusses each checklist item and gives methodological background and published examples of transparent reporting. The STROBE checklist is best used in conjunction with this article (freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine at, Annals of Internal Medicine at, and Epidemiology at Information on the STROBE Initiative is available at
  2. * Give information separately for exposed and unexposed groups