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Dataset for file fragment classification of image file formats

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Abstract

Objectives

File fragment classification of image file formats is a topic of interest in network forensics. There are a few publicly available datasets of files with image formats. Therewith, there is no public dataset for file fragments of image file formats. So, a big research challenge in file fragment classification of image file formats is to compare the performance of the developed methods over the same datasets.

Data description

In this study, we present a dataset that contains file fragments of ten image file formats: Bitmap, Better Portable Graphics, Free Lossless Image Format, Graphics Interchange Format, Joint Photographic Experts Group, Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000, Joint Photographic Experts Group Extended Range, Portable Network Graphic, Tagged Image File Format, and Web Picture. Corresponding to each format, the dataset contains the file fragments of image files with different compression settings. For each pair of file format and compression setting, 800 file fragments are provided. Totally, the dataset contains 25,600 file fragments.

Objective

A large amount of Internet traffic is used for exchanging image file formats. As the sizes of these files are usually much bigger than the maximum network packet size, the files are segmented into fragments. The fragments generated by various users are transmitted over the network. Some of these fragments can be received by the network surveillance unit. The network surveillance unit may wish to detect the file format of each fragment for network forensics purposes.

Some researches have been carried in the field of file fragment classification of image file formats [1, 2]. There are a few publicly available datasets of files with different formats [3]. Therewith, there is no public dataset for file fragments of image file formats. This makes it difficult for other researchers to compare the proposed methods with the existing methods.

In this study, we present a dataset that contains file fragments of ten image file formats: Bitmap (BMP), Better Portable Graphics (BPG), Free Lossless Image Format (FLIF), Graphics Interchange Format (GIF), Joint Photographic Experts GROUP (JPEG), Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000 (JPEG 2000), Joint Photographic Experts Group Extended Range (JPEG XR), Portable Network Graphic (PNG), Tagged Image File Format (TIFF), and Web Picture (WEBP). Corresponding to each format, the dataset contains the file fragments of image files with different compression settings.

Data description

First, the whole set of raw image files is downloaded from the RAISE project [4]. These raw files are then converted in order to obtain image files in ten different formats: BMP, BPG, FLIF, GIF, JPEG, JPEG 2000, JPEG XR, PNG, TIFF, and WEBP. For each image file format, different compression settings are considered. Each raw image is converted into a specific file format using a particular compression setting. So, the contents of any two image files are not the same.

32 pairs of file format and compression setting are considered. For each pair of file format and compression setting, we have 160 compressed images. So, totally we have 5120 image files. Each of these files is segmented into 1 Kbyte (i.e. 1024 bytes) fragments. Then, five fragments are randomly selected among the fragments of each file. Before randomly selecting the fragments, 12.5% of the initial fragments and 12.5% of the final fragments of each file are discarded. This is to ensure that the fragments do not contain the file headers or trailers.

For each pair of file format and compression setting, we have 800 file fragments. So, the dataset of file fragments contains 25,600 file fragments. The dataset is partitioned according to 32 different pairs of file format and compression setting. Each partition is represented by an individual data set shown in Table 1. For example, data set 1 (i.e. BMP1.dat) contains 800 fragments of uncompressed BMP files. Data sets are provided in a generic binary data file format with .dat file extension.

Table 1 Overview of data files/data sets

Data file 1 (i.e. SettingsTable.pdf) contains a table that specifies 32 pairs of file format and compression setting. In this table, the software program employed for generating each file format is also specified. Data file 2 (i.e. ConversionSettings.zip) contains several screenshots of the software programs that display the employed compression settings. Data file 3 (i.e. ReadFragments.m) is a script in MATLAB language that reads all the fragments from one or more specific data sets. By running this script and selecting some data set files, the fragments contained in these data sets are read and stored in a variable name Dataset. Variable Dataset is a MATLAB cell array with two rows. Each column in this cell array corresponds to one of the selected data sets. The first element of each column is a string value that specifies the data set file name. The second element of each column is a structure array with only one field named fragments. Dataset{2,i}(j).fragments (j = 1,2,…,160) is a cell array with length 5 that contains five fragments of the jth file in the selected data set i.

Limitations

  • The size of the fragments is considered to be fixed and equal to 1024 bytes.

  • A defined subset of file formats and compression settings are considered.

Availability of data materials

The data described in this Data note can be freely and openly accessed on OSF at https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/YH3XP [5]. Please see Table 1 and reference list for details and links to the data.

Abbreviations

BMP:

Bitmap

BPG:

Better Portable Graphics

FLIF:

Free Lossless Image Format

GIF:

Graphics Interchange Format

JPEG:

Joint Photographic Experts Group

JPEG 2000:

Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000

JPEG XR:

Joint Photographic Experts Group Extended range

PNG:

Portable Network Graphic

TIFF:

Tagged Image File Format

WEBP:

Web Picture

References

  1. 1.

    Beebe NL, Maddox LA, Liu L, Sun M. Sceadan: using concatenated N-Gram vectors for improved file and data type classification. IEEE Trans Inf Forensic Secur. 2013;8(9):1519–30.

  2. 2.

    Divakaran DM, Liau YS, Thing VL. Accurate in-network file-type classification. InSG-CRC. 2016. https://doi.org/10.3233/978-1-61499-617-0-139.

  3. 3.

    Grajeda C, Breitinger F, Baggili I. Availability of datasets for digital forensics—and what is missing. Digit Invest. 2017;22:S94–105.

  4. 4.

    Dang-Nguyen DT, Pasquini C, Conotter V, Boato G. Raise: a raw images dataset for digital image forensics. In: Proceedings of the 6th ACM multimedia systems conference. ACM. 2015. p. 219–224.

  5. 5.

    Fakouri R, Teimouri M. Image file fragments dataset and code. OSF. 2019. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/YH3XP.

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Acknowledgements

Not applicable.

Funding

The authors declare no source of funding.

Author information

MT designed the study. RF collected the data. MT and RF wrote the code. MT wrote the original draft of the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Correspondence to Mehdi Teimouri.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

No human subjects were part of this study and permission was thus not required according to the Institutional Review Board guidelines of author one.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Fakouri, R., Teimouri, M. Dataset for file fragment classification of image file formats. BMC Res Notes 12, 774 (2019) doi:10.1186/s13104-019-4812-0

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Keywords

  • Classification
  • File formats
  • File fragments
  • Image file formats