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  1. Reference genes are used as internal standards to normalize mRNA abundance in quantitative real-time PCR and thereby allow a direct comparison between samples. So far most of these expression studies used huma...

    Authors: Jan Axtner and Simone Sommer
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:264
  2. "Examinations drive students' learning." This statement refers to what is assumed to be one of the strongest relationships in education. We explored in this research how and why students differ in their approa...

    Authors: Hanan MF Al Kadri, Mohamed S Al-Moamary and Cees van der Vleuten
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:263
  3. Bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus is endemic in most large commercial and smallholder cattle farms of Zimbabwe, while brucellosis in other domestic animals is rare. The diagnosis of brucellosis is mai...

    Authors: Gift Matope, Evison Bhebhe, John Bwalya Muma, Eystein Skjerve and Berit Djønne
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:261
  4. Population-based association studies are used to identify common susceptibility variants for complex genetic traits. These studies are susceptible to confounding from unknown population substructure. Here we a...

    Authors: Jesse B Mez, John W Cole, Timothy D Howard, Leah R MacClellan, Oscar C Stine, Jeffery R O'Connell, Marcella A Wozniak, Barney J Stern, John D Sorkin, Braxton D Mitchell and Steven J Kittner
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:260
  5. Progressive loss of articular cartilage is a central hallmark in many joint disease, however, the relative importance of individual proteolytic pathways leading to cartilage erosion is at present unknown. We t...

    Authors: Bijue Wang, Pingping Chen, Anne-Christine Bay Jensen, Morten A Karsdal, Suzi H Madsen, Bodil-Cecilie Sondergaard, Qinlong Zheng and Per Qvist
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:259
  6. The economic importance of cereals such as barley, and the demand for improved yield and quality require a better understanding of the genetic components that modulate biologically and commercially relevant tr...

    Authors: Sven Gottwald, Petra Bauer, Takao Komatsuda, Udda Lundqvist and Nils Stein
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:258
  7. Inference of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) requires accurate data, a method to simulate the expression patterns and an efficient optimization algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters. Using this approach...

    Authors: Yves Fomekong-Nanfack, Marten Postma and Jaap A Kaandorp
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:256
  8. The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are bo...

    Authors: Fernando Rendo, Mikel Iriondo, Carmen Manzano and Andone Estonba
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:255
  9. The basis for understanding the characteristics of gene functional categories in chicken has been enhanced by the ongoing sequencing of the zebra finch genome, the second bird species to be extensively sequenc...

    Authors: Tim Downing, Paul Cormican, Cliona O'Farrelly, Daniel G Bradley and Andrew T Lloyd
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:254
  10. Psychosocial support services are an important component of modern cancer treatment. A major challenge for all psychosocial services is the achievement of equity of use. Previous studies in the UK have found t...

    Authors: Donald M Sharp, Mary B Walker, Julie S Bateman, Fiona Braid, Claire Hebblewhite, Teresa Hope, Michael Lines, Andrew A Walker and Leslie G Walker
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:253
  11. Medical students at the University of the West Indies receive clinical training by passing through a series of hospital rotations at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI). Many of these patients ar...

    Authors: Alan T Barnett, Shamir O Cawich, Ivor W Crandon, John F Lindo, Georgiana Gordon-Strachan, Diaqa Robinson and Deonne Ranglin
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:252
  12. Ubiquitination plays a critical role in regulating many cellular processes, from DNA repair and gene transcription to cell cycle and apoptosis. It is catalyzed by a specific enzymatic cascade ultimately leadin...

    Authors: Insaf A Qureshi, Francois Ferron, Cheah Chen Seh, Peter Cheung and Julien Lescar
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:251
  13. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) has become a very popular technique to study epigenetic regulation because it can be used to identify proteins and protein modifications present at specific locations in ch...

    Authors: Lata Balakrishnan and Barry Milavetz
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:250
  14. Nucleic acid detection based on ligation reaction or single nucleotide extension of ssDNA probes followed by tag microarray hybridization provides an accurate and sensitive detection tool for various diagnosti...

    Authors: Jarmo Ritari, Lars Paulin, Jenni Hultman and Petri Auvinen
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:249
  15. To conduct phylogeographic or population genetic studies, an adequate number of DNA markers for the focal species are required. Due to severe unavailability of genotype markers of any kind for the species Eura...

    Authors: Johannes Holmen, Leif A Vøllestad, Kjetill S Jakobsen and Craig R Primmer
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:248
  16. Application of reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is very well suited to reveal differences in gene expression between in vivo and in vitro produced embryos. Ultimately, this m...

    Authors: Katrien Smits, Karen Goossens, Ann Van Soom, Jan Govaere, Maarten Hoogewijs, Emilie Vanhaesebrouck, Cesare Galli, Silvia Colleoni, Jo Vandesompele and Luc Peelman
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:246
  17. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter polymorphisms at positions -597(G→A), -572(G→C) and -174(G→C) were shown to have a clinical impact on different major diseases. At present PCR-SSP protocols for IL-6 -597/-572/-174ha...

    Authors: Michael Müller-Steinhardt, Friederike Schulte, Harald Klüter and Peter Bugert
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:245
  18. The first step in routine microbiology laboratory procedures is the collection and safe transportation of swab samples. This can be accomplished using ESwab Collection and Transport System (Copan Italia, Bresc...

    Authors: Carla Fontana, Marco Favaro, Dolores Limongi, Jana Pivonkova and Cartesio Favalli
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:244
  19. Medical emigration from developing to developed countries is a well established phenomenon of substantial importance. Though Libya is classified as an upper-middle income country, it has been affected by this ...

    Authors: Hani TS Benamer, Amin Bredan and Omran Bakoush
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:242
  20. Bufonidae are a large family of toads with a subcosmopolitan distribution. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed a radiation of toads (Adenominae) with distinct adult and larval ecomorphs on the...

    Authors: SD Biju, Ines Van Bocxlaer, Varad B Giri, Simon P Loader and Franky Bossuyt
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:241
  21. Network and clustering analyses of microarray co-expression correlation data often require application of a threshold to discard small correlations, thus reducing computational demands and decreasing the numbe...

    Authors: Bhavesh R Borate, Elissa J Chesler, Michael A Langston, Arnold M Saxton and Brynn H Voy
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:240
  22. The worldwide expanding Mycobacterium tuberculosis W-Beijing family is associated with treatment failure and relapse. Its identification currently relies on spoligotyping and conventional sequencing. We developed...

    Authors: Zoheira Djelouadji, Mireille Henry, Amine Bachtarzi, Nadège Foselle, Didier Raoult and Michel Drancourt
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:239
  23. Cervical cancer is one of the most important cancers in African women. Polymorphisms in the Fas (FasR) and Fas ligand (FasL) genes have been reported to be associated with cervical cancer in certain population...

    Authors: Koushik Chatterjee, Malin Engelmark, Ulf Gyllensten, Collet Dandara, Lize van der Merwe, Ushma Galal, Margaret Hoffman and Anna-Lise Williamson
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:238
  24. Thyroid function changes during pregnancy and maternal thyroid dysfunction have been associated with adverse outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate thyroid hormones levels in pregnant women resident in Aragon, Spain.

    Authors: Julia Pilar Bocos-Terraz, Silvia Izquierdo-Álvarez, Jose Luís Bancalero-Flores, Rosa Álvarez-Lahuerta, Ana Aznar-Sauca, Elisabet Real-López, Raquel Ibáñez-Marco, Virgilio Bocanegra-García and Gildardo Rivera-Sánchez
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:237
  25. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a widely utilized method for gene-expression analysis. However, insufficient material often compromises large-scale gene-expression studies. The aim of this...

    Authors: Joëlle Vermeulen, Stefaan Derveaux, Steve Lefever, Els De Smet, Katleen De Preter, Nurten Yigit, Anne De Paepe, Filip Pattyn, Frank Speleman and Jo Vandesompele
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:235
  26. Recent evidence suggests erythropoietin (EPO) and the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) may play a direct role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Better characterization of the EPO-EPOR signaling system in...

    Authors: Shaival S Shah, Stephen H Tsang and Vinit B Mahajan
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:234
  27. Paratuberculosis vaccination has been in use in some regions for many decades, but results have not been widely spread. A new Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) killed vaccine was studied in relati...

    Authors: Ramon A Juste, Marta Alonso-Hearn, Elena Molina, Marivi Geijo, Patricia Vazquez, Iker A Sevilla and Joseba M Garrido
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:233
  28. Traumatic perforation of the tympanic membrane may be due to direct or indirect source. The aim of the study is to profile the various aetiologies of traumatic tympanic membrane perforation in Ilorin, north ce...

    Authors: Olushola A Afolabi, Shuaib K Aremu, Biodun S Alabi and S Segun-Busari
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:232
  29. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, possesses the paralogous genes aplnra and aplnrb that are duplicates of an ancestral orthologue of the human APLNR gene encoding a G-protein coupled receptor that binds the peptide lig...

    Authors: Svanhild Nornes, Ben Tucker and Michael Lardelli
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:231
  30. We used Global Positioning System (GPS) data from radiocollared pumas (Puma concolor) to identify kill sites of pumas preying upon an endangered population of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in southern Californi...

    Authors: Sean M Clemenza, Esther S Rubin, Christine K Johnson, Randall A Botta and Walter M Boyce
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:230
  31. The fibroblast-populated 3D collagen matrix is a model of tissue and healing which has been used since the 1980's. It was hypothesized that anchorage disruption of the collagen matrix would produce p53-depende...

    Authors: Mark A Carlson, Amy K Prall, Jeremiah J Gums, Alex Lesiak and Valerie K Shostrom
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:229
  32. Several pathogens that cause important zoonotic diseases have been frequently associated with armadillos and other xenarthrans. This mammal group typically has evolved on the South American continent and many ...

    Authors: Virgínia B Richini-Pereira, Sandra MG Bosco, Raquel C Theodoro, Lígia Barrozo, Silvia CB Pedrini, Patrícia S Rosa and Eduardo Bagagli
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:228
  33. The shikimate pathway is an attractive target for the development of antitubercular agents because it is essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, but absent in humans. M. tube...

    Authors: Valnês S Rodrigues Junior, Ardala Breda, Diógenes S Santos and Luiz A Basso
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:227
  34. The plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been shown to stimulate a non-allergy related immune response with increased levels of IgG1 and IgG2a, but not IgE, after co-administration with the model...

    Authors: Søren T Larsen and Gunnar D Nielsen
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:225
  35. Francisella tularensis is the etiologic agent of tularemia and is classified as a select agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Currently four known subspecies of F. tularensis that differ in vi...

    Authors: Dawn N Birdsell, Tasha Stewart, Amy J Vogler, Elisabeth Lawaczeck, Alisa Diggs, Tammy L Sylvester, Jordan L Buchhagen, Raymond K Auerbach, Paul Keim and David M Wagner
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:223
  36. Attributes of teams could affect the quality of care delivered in primary care. The aim of this study was to systematically review studies conducted within the UK NHS primary care that have measured team clima...

    Authors: Teik T Goh and Martin P Eccles
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:222
  37. Research has shown that fecal biomarkers are useful to assess the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the study is: to evaluate the efficacy of the fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin as in...

    Authors: Andrea Vieira, Chia Bin Fang, Ernani Geraldo Rolim, Wilmar Artur Klug, Flávio Steinwurz, Lucio Giovanni Battista Rossini and Paulo Azevedo Candelária
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:221
  38. High-throughput screening of protein-protein interactions opens new systems biology perspectives for the comprehensive understanding of cell physiology in normal and pathological conditions. In this context, y...

    Authors: Johann Pellet, Laurène Meyniel, Pierre-Olivier Vidalain, Benoît de Chassey, Lionel Tafforeau, Vincent Lotteau, Chantal Rabourdin-Combe and Vincent Navratil
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:220
  39. C21, the C-terminal peptide of thrombospondin-4, has growth promoting activity and was discovered as one of several erythropoietin-dependent endothelial proteins. C21 stimulates red cell formation in anemic mi...

    Authors: Gulzhakhan Sadvakassova, Monica C Dobocan and Luis F Congote
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:215
  40. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is a major activity in biomedical research. Scientists prefer to have a facile access to the results which may require conversions between data formats. First ha...

    Authors: Bowang Chen, Stefan Wilkening, Marion Drechsel and Kari Hemminki
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:214
  41. Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection amo...

    Authors: Techalew Shimelis, Mekashaw Tebeje, Endale Tadesse, Belete Tegbaru and Ashenafi Terefe
    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:213

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