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  1. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that salmon calcitonin has cartilage protective effects in joint degenerative diseases, such as osteoarthritis (OA). However, the presence of the calcitonin receptor...

    Authors: Toni Segovia-Silvestre, Caroline Bonnefond, Bodil C Sondergaard, Tjorbjoern Christensen, Morten A Karsdal and Anne C Bay-Jensen

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:407

    Content type: Research article

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  2. 454 sequencing is currently the method of choice for sequencing of antibody repertoires and libraries containing large numbers (106 to 1012) of different molecules with similar frameworks and variable regions whi...

    Authors: Ponraj Prabakaran, Emily Streaker, Weizao Chen and Dimiter S Dimitrov

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:404

    Content type: Research article

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  3. To improve the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), more rapid diagnostic techniques such as antibody detection based on immunochromatographic methods were developed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the...

    Authors: Al-habib O Said Toihir, Vincent Richard, Vaomalala Raharimanga, Samuel H Andrianarisoa, Gabriel M Ranjalahy, Herimanana Ramarokoto and Voahangy Rasolofo

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:403

    Content type: Short Report

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  4. Dupuytren's contracture is a condition of the palmar fascia involving contractures of the fascia and skin in the hand. Current treatment for Dupuytren's contracture is mainly limited to surgery. In the Netherl...

    Authors: Jetty A Overbeek, Fernie JA Penning-van Beest, Edith M Heintjes, Robert A Gerber, Joseph C Cappelleri, Steven ER Hovius and Ron MC Herings

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:402

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Norway spruce is widely distributed across Europe and the predominant tree of the Alpine region. Fast growth and the fact that timber can be harvested cost-effectively in relatively young populations define it...

    Authors: Silvia Fluch, Agnes Burg, Dieter Kopecky, Andreas Homolka, Nadine Spiess and Giovanni G Vendramin

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:401

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Because of its typical architecture, inheritance and small size, mitochondrial (mt) DNA is widely used for phylogenetic studies. Gene order is generally conserved in most taxa although some groups show conside...

    Authors: Gwenaelle Danic-Tchaleu, Serge Heurtebise, Benjamin Morga and Sylvie Lapègue

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:400

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Identifying the molecular interactions using bioinformatics tools before venturing into wet lab studies saves the energy and time considerably. The present study summarizes, molecular interactions and binding ...

    Authors: Radhakrishnan Narayana Swamy, A Gnanamani, Sangeetha Shanmugasamy, Ramesh Kumar Gopal and Asit Baran Mandal

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:399

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Although community pharmacists in the United Kingdom are expected to assess elderly patients' needs for additional support in managing their medicines, there is limited data on potentially useful assessment to...

    Authors: Solomon J Lubinga, Ian Millar and Joseph B Babigumira

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:398

    Content type: Short Report

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  9. Na+/I- symporter (NIS)-mediated iodide uptake allows radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. NIS is also expressed in breast tumors, raising potential for radionuclide therapy of breast cancer. However, NIS expre...

    Authors: Sasha J Beyer, Xiaoli Zhang, Rafael E Jimenez, Mei-Ling T Lee, Andrea L Richardson, Kun Huang and Sissy M Jhiang

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:397

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Previous studies identified CD147 as the chemotactic receptor on inflammatory leukocytes for extracellular cyclophilins (eCyp). However, CD147 is not known to associate with signal transducing molecules, so ot...

    Authors: Alexander Trachtenberg, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Shannon Heine, Stephanie Constant, Beda Brichacek and Michael Bukrinsky

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:396

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine upstream of many inflammatory cytokines. MIF is implicated in several acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. MIF's promoter regio...

    Authors: Pedro L Vera and Katherine L Meyer-Siegler

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:395

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Circular Binary Segmentation (CBS) is a permutation-based algorithm for array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) data analysis. CBS accurately segments data by detecting change-points using a maximal-t test...

    Authors: Fang-Han Hsu, Hung-I H Chen, Mong-Hsun Tsai, Liang-Chuan Lai, Chi-Cheng Huang, Shih-Hsin Tu, Eric Y Chuang and Yidong Chen

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:394

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Hairy root cultures produced via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation have emerged as practical biological models to elucidate the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites. To effectively understand th...

    Authors: Jose Condori, Cesar Nopo-Olazabal, Giuliana Medrano and Fabricio Medina-Bolivar

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:392

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Biomarkers have been used extensively in clinical studies to assess toxicant exposure in smokers and non-smokers and have recently been used in the evaluation of novel tobacco products. The urinary metabolite ...

    Authors: Emmanuel Minet, Graham Errington, Gerhard Scherer, Kirk Newland, Mehran Sharifi, Brian Bailey, Mike McEwan and Francis Cheung

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:391

    Content type: Short Report

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  15. Service accreditation is a structured process of recognising and promoting performance and adherence to standards. Typically, accreditation agencies either receive standards from an authorized body or develop ...

    Authors: Jeffrey Braithwaite, Johanna Westbrook, Brian Johnston, Stephen Clark, Mark Brandon, Margaret Banks, Clifford Hughes, David Greenfield, Marjorie Pawsey, Angus Corbett, Andrew Georgiou, Joanne Callen, John Øvretveit, Catherine Pope, Rosa Suñol, Charles Shaw…

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:390

    Content type: Project Note

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  16. Visceral leishmaniasis is a notifiable parasitic disease that had increased in incidence in our region on the past few years. It is common in children. In adults, it occurs more on a background of immunodefici...

    Authors: Hazar Lahlou, Ahmed B Filali, Meryem Alami, Moncef Amrani, Rhizlane Berrady, Samira Rabhi and Wafaa Bono

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:389

    Content type: Short Report

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  17. Local public health departments (LHDs) in the United States have been encouraged to collaborate with various other community organizations and individuals. Current research suggests that many forms of active p...

    Authors: James Studnicki, Elena A Platonova, Chris N Eiechelberger and John W Fisher

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:387

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Social epidemiology seeks in part to understand how social factors--ideas, beliefs, attitudes, actions, and social connections--influence health. However, national health datasets have not kept up with the evo...

    Authors: Peter Muennig, Gretchen Johnson, Jibum Kim, Tom W Smith and Zohn Rosen

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:385

    Content type: Data Note

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  19. Biological processes such as metabolic pathways, gene regulation or protein-protein interactions are often represented as graphs in systems biology. The understanding of such networks, their analysis, and thei...

    Authors: Georgios A Pavlopoulos, Sean D Hooper, Alejandro Sifrim, Reinhard Schneider and Jan Aerts

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:384

    Content type: Technical Note

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  20. The incidence of colonic diverticular disease varies with national origin, cultural background and diet. The frequency of this disease increases with advancing age. Right-sided diverticular disease is uncommon...

    Authors: Jasim M Radhi, Jennifer A Ramsay and Odette Boutross-Tadross

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:383

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Modern microscope platforms are able to generate multiple gigabytes of image data in a single experimental session. In a routine research laboratory workflow, these data are initially stored on the local acqui...

    Authors: Oliver Müller, Peter Lipp and Lars Kaestner

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:382

    Content type: Technical Note

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  22. The small molecule Halofuginone (HF) is a potent regulator of extracellular matrix (ECM ) gene expression and is unique in its therapeutic potential. While the basis for HF effects is unknown, inhibition of TG...

    Authors: Yana G Kamberov, Jihoon Kim, Ralph Mazitschek, Winston P Kuo and Malcolm Whitman

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:381

    Content type: Research article

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  23. An ongoing evaluation system is essential to determine if the academic system in place has worked to produce a better product, hence the objective of our study was to evaluate the satisfaction level among medi...

    Authors: Bushra Manzar and Nabeel Manzar

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:380

    Content type: Short Report

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  24. HIV infection is associated with a high prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and increased thrombotic events but the aetiopathogenic link between the two is unclear.

    Authors: Anthony C Becker, Elena Libhaber, Karen Sliwa, Sham Singh, Simon Stewart, Mohammed Tikly and Mohammed R Essop

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:379

    Content type: Short Report

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  25. Hemispherical asymmetry, sex differences and age-related changes have been reported for the human brain. Meanwhile it was still unclear the presence of the asymmetry or sex differences in the human brain occur...

    Authors: Soichiro Kitamura, Masayuki Morikawa, Kuniaki Kiuchi, Toshiaki Taoka, Masami Fukusumi, Kimihiko Kichikawa and Toshifumi Kishimoto

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:378

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Plants often release a complex blend of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in response to insect herbivore damage. Among those blends of VOC green leaf volatiles (GLV) have been demonstrated to function as defen...

    Authors: Jurgen Engelberth

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:377

    Content type: Short Report

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  27. Three distinct forms of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), defined as classical (C-), low (L-) or high (H-) type, have been detected through ongoing active and passive surveillance systems for the disease.

    Authors: Chiara Porcario, S Mark Hall, Francesca Martucci, Cristiano Corona, Barbara Iulini, Alice Z Perazzini, Pierluigi Acutis, Amir N Hamir, Christina M Loiacono, Justin J Greenlee, Jürgen A Richt, Maria Caramelli and Cristina Casalone

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:376

    Content type: Research article

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  28. In 2009, an outbreak of respiratory illness caused by influenza A H1N1 virus occurred worldwide. Some patients required Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. The use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in these p...

    Authors: Karina T Timenetsky, Silvia HCT Aquino, Cilene Saghabi, Corinne Taniguchi, Claudia V Silvia, Luci Correa, Alexandre R Marra, Raquel AC Eid and Oscar FP dos Santos

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:375

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Evidence based medicine plays a crucial role as a tool that helps integrate research evidence into clinical practice. However, few reports have yet to examine its application in daily practice among resident p...

    Authors: Risahmawati RM Risahmawati, Sei SE Emura, Tomoko TN Nishi and Shunzo SK Koizumi

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:374

    Content type: Short Report

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  30. Internal control genes with highly uniform expression throughout the experimental conditions are required for accurate gene expression analysis as no universal reference genes exists. In this study, the expres...

    Authors: Gabriela N Tenea, Adrian Peres Bota, Fernando Cordeiro Raposo and Alain Maquet

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:373

    Content type: Technical Note

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  31. Mental health and injury are neglected public health issues especially in low-income nations. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury in t...

    Authors: Adamson S Muula, Seter Siziya and Emmanuel Rudatsikira

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:372

    Content type: Short Report

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  32. The finding of human umbilical cord blood as one of the most likely sources of hematopoietic stem cells offers a less invasive alternative for the need of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Due to the on...

    Authors: Tono Djuwantono, Firman F Wirakusumah, Tri H Achmad, Ferry Sandra, Danny Halim and Ahmad Faried

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:371

    Content type: Research article

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  33. We set out to analyse the gene expression profile of pre-osteoblastic C2C12 cells during osteodifferentiation induced by both rhBMP2 and rhBMP7 using DNA microarrays. Induced and repressed genes were intercept...

    Authors: Juan C Bustos-Valenzuela, Andre Fujita, Erik Halcsik, Jose M Granjeiro and Mari C Sogayar

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:370

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Salmonella Enteritidis is currently the world's leading cause of salmonellosis, in part because of its ability to contaminate the internal contents of eggs. Previous analyses have shown that it is an exceptionall...

    Authors: Jean Guard, Cesar A Morales, Paula Fedorka-Cray and Richard K Gast

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:369

    Content type: Research article

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  35. In Portugal, there are several physical activity (PA) programmes for elderly people developed by the local government. The importance of these programmes has been increasing since the evidence has shown that t...

    Authors: Ana I Marques, Pedro Soares, Luísa Soares-Miranda, Carla Moreira, António Oliveira-Tavares, Paula Clara-Santos, Susana Vale, Rute Santos and Joana Carvalho

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:368

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Physicians are quite often surveyed with the aim to investigate their opinions regarding provision and improvement of health care. However, in many cases response rates tend to be rather low. The aim of the st...

    Authors: Franziska Kühne, Mareike Behmann, Susanne Bisson, Ulla Walter and Nils Schneider

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:367

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Herbal Medicines (HMs) are playing major roles in the health of the millions of people worldwide. Muslim Religious Leader (MRLs), being an important component of the society with huge influence on it, could co...

    Authors: Md Harun-Or-Rashid, Yoshitoku Yoshida, Md Aminur Rashid, Salmun Nahar and Junichi Sakamoto

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:366

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) pose a therapeutic challenge to surgeons, especially in developing countries where health care resources are limited and the vast majority of patients present to health facilities l...

    Authors: Phillipo L Chalya, Joseph B Mabula, Ramesh M Dass, Rodrick Kabangila, Hyasinta Jaka, Mabula D Mchembe, Johannes B Kataraihya, Nkinda Mbelenge and Japhet M Gilyoma

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:365

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  39. We have started using laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) in urologic surgery, although its use has not gained momentum due to its level of difficulty. We here report our initial experience with trans...

    Authors: Akira Miyajima, Takahiro Maeda, Masanori Hasegawa, Toshikazu Takeda, Masaru Ishida, Takeo Kosaka, Eiji Kikuchi, Ken Nakagawa and Mototsugu Oya

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:364

    Content type: Technical Note

    Published on:

  40. Pubertal timing is a strongly heritable trait, but no single puberty gene has been identified. Thus, the genetic background of idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) is poorly understood. Overall, the ge...

    Authors: Johanna Tommiska, Kaspar Sørensen, Lise Aksglaede, Rosanna Koivu, Lea Puhakka, Anders Juul and Taneli Raivio

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:363

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Country by country similarities and differences in physical therapy practice exists. Therefore, before updates in practice can be provided, such as trainings in evidence-based practice, it is necessary to iden...

    Authors: Janine Margarita R Dizon, Karen Grimmer-Somers and Saravana Kumar

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:362

    Content type: Short Report

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  42. There is increasing use of non-traditional methods like problem-based learning, team-working and several other active-learning techniques in Physiology teaching. While several studies have investigated the imp...

    Authors: Beatriz Gal, Ignacio Busturia and Concepción Garrido

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:360

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) is a major species in the Culex pipiens complex and an important vector for several human pathogens including West Nile virus and parasitic filarial nematodes causing lymphatic filari...

    Authors: Paul V Hickner, Becky deBruyn, Diane D Lovin, Akio Mori, Christopher A Saski and David W Severson

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:358

    Content type: Short Report

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  44. Little is known about interactions between filamentous heterotrophs and filamentous cyanobacteria. Here, interactions between the filamentous heterotrophic bacteria Fibrella aestuarina (strain BUZ 2) and Fibrisom...

    Authors: Miroslav Svercel, Bianca Saladin, Sofia J van Moorsel, Sarah Wolf and Homayoun C Bagheri

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:357

    Content type: Correspondence

    Published on:

  45. Ricinus communis is an industrially important non-edible oil seed crop, native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Although, R. communis genome was assembled in 4X draft by JCVI, and is predicted to...

    Authors: Shalabh Thakur, Sanjay Jha and Bharat B Chattoo

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:356

    Content type: Data Note

    Published on:

  46. Sodium absorption by semicircular canal duct (SCCD) epithelial cells is thought to contribute to the homeostasis of the volume of vestibular endolymph. It was previously shown that the epithelial cells could a...

    Authors: Muneharu Yamazaki, Tao Wu, Satyanarayana R Pondugula, Donald G Harbidge and Daniel C Marcus

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:355

    Content type: Research article

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