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  1. Yaws is a bacterial skin and bone infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum pertenue. It is endemic, particularly among pygmies in Central African Republic. To assess the clinical cure rate after treatment ...

    Authors: Alexandre Manirakiza, Susana Vilas Boas, Narcisse Beyam, Germain Zadanga, François Xavier Konamna, Siméon P Njuimo and Rémi Laganier

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:543

    Content type: Short Report

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  2. Nutritional vitamin D deficiency is an emerging risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure. The association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide...

    Authors: James B Wetmore, Rajyalakshmi Gadi, John H Lee, James H O'Keefe, Paul S Chan, Fengming Tang and John A Spertus

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:542

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Calcium signals ([Ca2+]i) direct many aspects of embryo development but their regulation is not well characterised. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a family of intracellular Ca2+ release channels that control the ...

    Authors: Houdini HT Wu, Caroline Brennan and Rachel Ashworth

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:541

    Content type: Short Report

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  4. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability. It has been postulated that brain metabolic status, intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) are related to patie...

    Authors: Theoniki Paraforou, Konstantinos Paterakis, Konstantinos Fountas, George Paraforos, Achilleas Chovas, Anastasia Tasiou, Maria Mpakopoulou, Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Antonios Karavellis and Apostolos Komnos

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:540

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The prevalence and severity of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic appeared to vary significantly across populations and geographic regions. We sought to investigate the variability in transmissibility of H1N1 pandemic in ...

    Authors: Luiz C Mostaço-Guidolin, Amy Greer, Beate Sander, Jianhong Wu and Seyed M Moghadas

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:537

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Comprehensive antenatal, perinatal and early postnatal care has the potential to significantly reduce the 3.58 million neonatal deaths that occur annually worldwide. This paper systematically reviews data on t...

    Authors: Aruna Chandran, Hadley K Herbert, Anne CC Lee, Igor Rudan and Abdullah H Baqui

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:536

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Due to its perception as a disease of development, road traffic accident and related injuries tend to be under recognized as a major health problem in developing countries. However, majority of the world's fat...

    Authors: Abrahim Hassen, Ameyu Godesso, Lakew Abebe and Eshetu Girma

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:535

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A is caused by mutations in the LAMA2 gene that encodes the laminin α2 chain, a component of the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix protein laminin-211. The clinical spectrum...

    Authors: Claudia Di Blasi, Emanuela Bellafiore, Mustafa AM Salih, M Chiara Manzini, Steven A Moore, Mohammed Z Seidahmed, Maowia M Mukhtar, Zein A Karrar, Christopher A Walsh, Kevin P Campbell, Renato Mantegazza, Lucia Morandi and Marina Mora

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:534

    Content type: Research article

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  9. An important condition for independent living is having a well-functioning social network to provide support. An Integrated Neighbourhood Approach (INA) creates a supportive environment for the frail elderly, ...

    Authors: Jane M Cramm, Hanna van Dijk, Freek Lötters, Job van Exel and Anna P Nieboer

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:532

    Content type: Project Note

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  10. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke, which can cause sudden death in adulthood. In general, the clinical manifestations of cardiovascular diseases are caused by a...

    Authors: Manoel ES Modelli, Áurea S Cherulli, Lenora Gandolfi and Riccardo Pratesi

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:531

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Rotator cuff tendon tear is a leading cause for atrophy, fibrosis and fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff muscles. The pathophysiology of fatty muscle infiltration is not well understood. An animal model su...

    Authors: Mazda Farshad, Carola C Würgler-Hauri, Thomas Kohler, Christian Gerber and Dominique A Rothenfluh

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:530

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Establishment of the health impact of hypertension on quality of life of Nigerians is a step towards controlling the disease. The study aimed to provide a Nigerian specific reference list of utility scores of ...

    Authors: Obinna I Ekwunife, Cletus N Aguwa, Maxwell O Adibe, Ebenezer Barikpaoar and Chioma J Onwuka

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:528

    Content type: Short Report

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  13. Studies intending to measure drug-induced changes in learning and memory are challenged to parse out the effects of drugs on sensory, motor, and associative systems in the brain. In the context of conditioned ...

    Authors: Gina N Wilson, Orion R Biesan, Jennifer L Remus and G Andrew Mickley

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:527

    Content type: Short Report

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  14. Brucellosis in livestock causes enormous losses for economies of developing countries and poses a severe health risk to consumers of dairy products. Little information is known especially on camel brucellosis ...

    Authors: Mayada M Gwida, Adel H El-Gohary, Falk Melzer, Herbert Tomaso, Uwe Rösler, Ulrich Wernery, Renate Wernery, Mandy C Elschner, Iahtasham Khan, Meike Eickhoff, Daniel Schöner and Heinrich Neubauer

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:525

    Content type: Short Report

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  15. To study late-life depression and its unfavourable course and co morbidities in The Netherlands.

    Authors: Hannie C Comijs, Harm W van Marwijk, Roos C van der Mast, Paul Naarding, Richard C Oude Voshaar, Aartjan TF Beekman, Marjolein Boshuisen, Janny Dekker, Rob Kok, Margot WM de Waal, Brenda WJH Penninx, Max L Stek and Johannes H Smit

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:524

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Urochloa humidicola is a forage grass that grows in tropical regions and is recognized for its tolerance to seasonal flooding. It is a polyploid and apomictic species with high phenotypic plasticity. As molecular...

    Authors: Bianca BZ Vigna, Guilherme C Alleoni, Leticia Jungmann, Cacilda B do Valle and Anete P de Souza

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:523

    Content type: Short Report

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  17. Escherichia coli, the main bacteria found in recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), is now frequently resistant to several currently used antibiotic treatments making new solutions essential. In this study, we...

    Authors: Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Xavier Vitrac, Louis Bernard, Franck Bruyère and Albert Sotto

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:522

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The genetic code consists of non-random usage of synonymous codons for the same amino acids, termed codon bias or codon usage. Codon juxtaposition is also non-random, referred to as codon context bias or codon...

    Authors: Immanuel Leifer, Dirk Hoeper, Sandra Blome, Martin Beer and Nicolas Ruggli

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:521

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Anxiety and depression have been identified as a common psychological distress faced by the majority of cancer patients. With the increasing number of cancer cases, increasing demands will be placed on health ...

    Authors: Rama K Rajandram, Samuel MY Ho, Nabil Samman, Natalie Chan, Colman McGrath and Roger A Zwahlen

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:519

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Gene expression studies are a prerequisite for understanding the biological function of genes. Because of its high sensitivity and easy use, quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become the gold standard for gene expres...

    Authors: Maik Klie and Thomas Debener

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:518

    Content type: Research article

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  21. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulatory molecules that play an important role in many physiological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition to modulating normal cellular functio...

    Authors: Eugene D Ponomarev, Tatiana Veremeyko and Natasha S Barteneva

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:517

    Content type: Short Report

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  22. The endangered snow leopard is found throughout major mountain ranges of Central Asia, including the remote Himalayas. However, because of their elusive behavior, sparse distribution, and poor access to their ...

    Authors: Dibesh B Karmacharya, Kamal Thapa, Rinjan Shrestha, Maheshwar Dhakal and Jan E Janecka

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:516

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as a metabolic disorder largely seen in urbanized populations. The purpose of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors for NAFLD in a rural, ...

    Authors: M Janani Pinidiyapathirage, Anuradha S Dassanayake, Shaman Rajindrajith, Udaya Kalubowila, Norihiro Kato, A Rajitha Wickremasinghe and H Janaka de Silva

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:513

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity l...

    Authors: Kazunori Ohkawara, Kazuko Ishikawa-Takata, Jong Hoon Park, Izumi Tabata and Shigeho Tanaka

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:512

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Co-administration of anti-tuberculosis and antiretroviral therapy is often inevitable in high-burden countries where tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS. Concurrent...

    Authors: Hadija H Semvua and Gibson S Kibiki

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:511

    Content type: Hypothesis

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  26. The response of the NarQP two-component signal transduction system regulon in response to the presence of nitrate for the bovine pathogen Mannheimia haemolytica A1 was investigated by proteomic analysis. Total pr...

    Authors: Ichiro Inamoto and Reggie Lo

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:510

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Qualitative studies are particularly valued for their exploratory nature but, like other research methods, they do require careful planning to ensure rigorous study design. Our objective was to undertake a pil...

    Authors: Renée Otmar, Mark A Kotowicz, Geoffrey C Nicholson and Julie A Pasco

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:508

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Obesity is an important public health problem in Australia, and monitoring the nutritional intake of the population is an important endeavour. One way to assess food habits is via Food Frequency Questionnaires...

    Authors: Alison M Daly, Jacqueline E Parsons, Nerissa A Wood, Tiffany K Gill and Anne W Taylor

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:507

    Content type: Short Report

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  29. Malaria remains a major public health problem, especially in tropical and subtropical regions because of the emergence and widespread of antimalarial drug resistance. Traditional medicine represents one potent...

    Authors: Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki, Sandrine Lydie Oyegue Liabagui, Jean Bernard Bongui, Rafika Zatra, Jacques Lebibi and Fousseyni S Toure-Ndouo

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:506

    Content type: Short Report

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  30. The first case of HIV in Ethiopia was reported in 1984. Since then, HIV/AIDS has become a major public health concern in the country, leading the Government of Ethiopia to declare a public health emergency in ...

    Authors: Yitayal Shiferaw, Agersew Alemu, Amanuel Girma, Afera Getahun, Andarge Kassa, Alemayehu Gashaw, Abebe Alemu, Takele Teklu and Baye Gelaw

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:505

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), affecting more than two billion people around the globe and is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing...

    Authors: Vinita Periwal, Jinuraj K Rajappan, Abdul UC Jaleel and Vinod Scaria

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:504

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Low environmental air quality is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity and this question is now emerging as a main concern of governmental authorities. Airborne pollution results from the combination ...

    Authors: Cécile Duclairoir Poc, Anne Groboillot, Olivier Lesouhaitier, Jean-Paul Morin, Nicole Orange and Marc JG Feuilloley

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:503

    Content type: Technical Note

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  33. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) from mustard is cytotoxic; however the mechanism of its toxicity is unknown. We examined the effects of AITC on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression in Caenorhabditis elegans. We als...

    Authors: AkalRachna K Saini, Robert T Tyler, Youn Young Shim and Martin JT Reaney

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:502

    Content type: Short Report

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  34. Transmission of the prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) occurred accidentally to cattle and several other mammalian species via feed supplemented with meat and bone meal contaminated with infe...

    Authors: Jo Moore, Stephen AC Hawkins, Anthony R Austin, Timm Konold, Robert B Green, Ian W Blamire, Ian Dexter, Michael J Stack, Melanie J Chaplin, Jan PM Langeveld, Marion M Simmons, Yvonne I Spencer, Paul R Webb, Michael Dawson and Gerald AH Wells

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:501

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined as a group of breast carcinomas that are negative for expression of hormone receptors (ER, PR) and Her2, we can distinguish between two groups: basal-like (ER-, ...

    Authors: Yousra Akasbi, Sanae Bennis, Fouad Abbass, Kawtar Znati, Khalid Amrani Joutei, Afaf Amarti and Omar EL Mesbahi

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:500

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Studies of nuclear function in many organisms, especially those with tough cell walls, are limited by lack of availability of simple, economical methods for large-scale preparation of clean, undamaged nuclei.

    Authors: Robert M Givens, Larry D Mesner, Joyce L Hamlin, Michael J Buck and Joel A Huberman

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:499

    Content type: Technical Note

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  37. Although histopathological grading systems for disc degeneration are frequently used in research, they are not yet integrated into daily care routine pathology of surgical samples. Therefore, data on histopath...

    Authors: Christoph Weiler, Mercedes Lopez-Ramos, H Michael Mayer, Andreas Korge, Christoph J Siepe, Karin Wuertz, Veronique Weiler, Norbert Boos and Andreas G Nerlich

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:497

    Content type: Research article

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  38. In recent years waterpipe smoking has become a popular practice amongst young adults in eastern Mediterranean countries, including Iran. The aim of this study was to assess waterpipe smoking perceptions and pr...

    Authors: Nasim Ghafouri, Jan D Hirsch, Gholamreza Heydari, Candis M Morello, Grace M Kuo and Renu F Singh

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:496

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Up-regulation of S100A7 (Psoriasin), a small calcium-binding protein, is associated with the development of several types of carcinomas, but its function and possibility to serve as a diagnostic or prognostic ...

    Authors: Manuela R Barbieri, Camillo DC Andrade, Wilson A Silva Jr, Adriana A Marques, Andréia M Leopoldino, Marlise BA Montes, Marcelo Dias-Baruffi, Iberê C Soares, Alda Wakamatsu, Venâncio AF Alves, Hélen J Laure, Marco A Zago and Lewis J Greene

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:494

    Content type: Research article

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