 Research note
 Open Access
 Published:
Predicting breast cancer metastasis from wholeblood transcriptomic measurements
BMC Research Notes volume 13, Article number: 248 (2020)
Abstract
Objective
In this exploratory work we investigate whether blood gene expression measurements predict breast cancer metastasis. Early detection of increased metastatic risk could potentially be lifesaving. Our data comes from the Norwegian Women and Cancer epidemiological cohort study. The women who contributed to these data provided a blood sample up to a year before receiving a breast cancer diagnosis. We estimate a penalized maximum likelihood logistic regression. We evaluate this in terms of calibration, concordance probability, and stability, all of which we estimate by the bootstrap.
Results
We identify a set of 108 candidate predictor genes that exhibit a fold change in average metastasized observation where there is none for the average nonmetastasized observation.
Introduction
About one in ten women will at some point develop breast cancer (BC). About 25% have an aggressive cancer at the time of diagnosis, with metastatic spread. The absence or presence of metastatic spread largely determines the patient’s survival. Early detection is hence very important in terms of reducing cancer mortality. A blood sample is cheaper and less invasive than the usual node biopsy. Were we able to detect signs of metastasis or metastatic potential by a blood sample, we could conceivably start treatment earlier.
Several recent articles develop this idea of liquid biopsies [1]. A review in Cancer and Metastasis Reviews [2] lists liquid biopsies and large data analysis tools as important challenges in metastatic breast cancer research.
The Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) postgenome cohort [3] is a prospective populationbased cohort that contains blood samples from 50,000 women born between 1943 and 1957. Out of these in total about 1600 BC case–control pairs (3200 blood samples) have at various times been processed to provide transcriptomic measurements in the form of mRNA abundance. These measurements combine with questionnaires, disease status from the Norwegian Cancer Registry, and death status from the Cause of Death Registry from Statistics Norway to provide a highquality dataset. These data are used for exploration and hypothesis generation.
We examine 88 breast cancer cases from the NOWAC study. The blood samples were provided 6–358 days before BC diagnosis. We fit a penalized likelihood logistic regression with the ElasticNettype penalty [4]. This approach provides builtin variable selection in the estimation procedure. Our model suggests 108 predictor genes that form a potential direction for further research.
Main text
Material and methods
Data
We analyze 88 cases with breast cancer diagnoses from the NOWAC Postgenome cohort [5]. For each case, we have an agematched control that we use to normalize the gene expression levels. For our analysis this is mainly done to mitigate batch effects from the lab processing of the blood samples, cases and controls being kept together for the whole pipeline. Only women who received a breast cancer diagnosis at most one year after providing a blood sample were considered as cases. This limits our sample size but it is more biologically plausible to see a signal in more recent blood samples.
Out of the 88 breast cancers, 25% have metastases. The metastic and nonmetastic cancers are fairly similar in terms of usual covariates. Respectively the proportion of smokers is 13% against 25%. The proportion of hormone treatment is 25% against 31%. The median age (with .05 and .95 quantiles) is 56 (51, 61) against 56 (51, 62). The median BMI is 24.5 (19.4, 35.9) against 25.5 (21.1, 32.4). The median parity is 2 (1, 3) against 2 (0, 3).
The data were processed according to [6] and [7]. The preprocessed data is a \(88\times 12404\) fold change matrix, X, on the \(\log _2\) scale. For each gene, g, and each observation, i, we have the measurement \(\log _2 x_{ig}  \log _2 x^\prime _{ig}.\) Here \(x_{ig}\) is the g expression level for the ith case, and \(x^\prime _{ig}\) is the corresponding control. The response variable, metastasis, indicates the presence of metastatic spread.
Predictive model
We model the probability of metastasis, p(m), given gene expression across all genes, x, by a penalized likelihood logistic regression with an ElasticNettype penalty [4]. The likelihood of the logistic model
is maximized under the constraint that \((1\alpha )\sum \left \beta _j\right + \alpha \sum \beta _j^2 \le t\) for some userspecified penalty size t and mixing parameter \(\alpha \).
We choose \(\alpha =0.5\) a priori and find a penalty size t in a datadriven way by optimizing for the modified version of Akaike’s Information Criterion [8, 9],
where \(LR \chi ^2\) is the likelihood ratio \(\chi ^2\) for the model and k is the number of nonzero coefficients. We use this criterion on the recommendation of Harrell [10], who states that maximizing this criterion in terms of penalty often leads to a reasonable choice. We prefer this to tuning by crossvalidation since it does not require data splitting. Data splitting procedures tend to induce more variance, which is undesirable with as few observations as we have. A more detailed discussion of these choices can be found in [11].
Metrics
We evaluate models by several criteria. Brier score [12] is the mean squared error,
between the probability that was predicted by the model, \({\hat{y}}\), and the known outcomes, y. It is a onenumber summary of the calibration of predicted probabilities.
We also assess calibration by means of a calibration curve. This is an estimate of proportion of true successes as a function of predicted probability, which we calculate by smoothing the true zero/one outcome as a function of predicted probability (LOWESS with a span of \(\frac{2}{3}\)). If n observations receive a prediction of \({\hat{p}}\), \(n{\hat{p}}\) of them should have the predicted condition for a wellcalibrated model.
Concordance probability is the probability of ranking (in terms of predicted \({\hat{p}}\)) a randomly chosen positive higher than a randomly chosen negative. This is equivalent to the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and is proportional to the MannWhitneyWilcoxon U statistic [13].
Stability is the proportion of overlap between predictor genes chosen during different realizations of the modeling procedure. We follow [14] and measure this by the Jaccard index, \(\frac{S_1 \cap S_2}{S_1 \cup S_2},\) where \(S_1\) and \(S_2\) are two sets of predictor genes.
Brier score and concordance probability are estimated using the optimismcorrected bootstrap approach described in [15], which has the advantage of using all of the data in estimating model performance opposed to data splitting procedures. Stability is estimated from regular bootstrap resampling.
Results
Evaluation metrics
Figure 1 shows the bootstrap distributions for our estimates of Brier score, concordance probability, and stability. The solid lines show point estimates and the dotted lines indicate the middle .8 of each distribution. The Brier score for our model is roughly .1, while that of an interceptonly null model is roughly .18. Since Brier score is the mean square error of predicted probabilities we can take its root to get an average error on the probability scale; \(\sqrt{.1} \approx .32\), which suggests that the predicted probabilities are not very accurate on average. Figure 2 corroborates this. The figure shows the pointwise calibration of predicted probabilities, ie., for a given predicted metastasis probability, how great a proportion observations turned out to have metastases. For a predicted metastasis probability \(<.4\) the true proportion is \(\approx .1\), while for a predicted metastasis probability \(>.8\) the true proportion is \(\approx .7\). In other words we overestimate low probabilities and underestimate high ones.
Returning to Fig. 1, the concordance probability (or AUC) is quite high at roughly .88, with a lower bound for the middle .8 of the distribution at .81. Contrast this with random guess at .5. This suggests that the model consistently selects gene sets that separate metastases from nonmetastases in their expression levels in spite of the fact that the predicted probabilities are poorly calibrated. The stability of these chosen gene sets is around .16, which suggests the likely scenario that there are many correlated genes to choose from. With a stability of .16 for 108 genes you might expect a 17gene overlap when fitting a similar model to similar data.
Selected genes
We list the 108 genes selected by penalized likelihood and describe them in general quantitative terms. We keep track of the selected gene sets under resampling and can hence calculate statistics for how often a given gene is selected and for how often a given gene is coselected with any other gene. Table 1 shows the 108 selected genes ordered by their individual selection probabilities. Apart from the first few genes, the selection probabilities are not very high. It is quite likely that (i) a larger set of genes correlate with the ones we select and get selected in their place some of the time, and (ii) our selected genes correlate with one another and the selection of one some times makes the selection of another less likely. This is a natural consequence of doing variable selection: “redundant” information may shrink out of the model.
The selected genes show a clear difference in fold change between metastasized and nonmetastasized BC cases; we refer interested readers to Additional file 1. Further figures and discussion about, as well as pairwise coselection can be found in [11].
Limitations
The prospective design of NOWAC yields data prior to the cancer diagnosis, thus allowing to test prediction models on original data corresponding to earlystage cancer. However, there will perforce never be more cases where the blood sample was provided close to diagnosis in this particular study. As the data acquisition technology has changed, there little hope to produce new comparable data outside of NOWAC. Since our data set is small (88 pairs of women for 12404 probes), we expect the success of both variable selection and prediction to be limited.
Concerning variable selection, the set of genes kept in the model is highly unstable under perturbation by resampling, and only a few of them are selected in a meaningful fraction resamples.
Concerning prediction, the AUC is high enough that there is reason for suspicion. The same is the case for Brier score, which is suspiciously low. It is quite likely that the bootstrap corrections for optimism are too. Moreover the bootstrap shows high variability in high dimensions. The calibration curve suggests that the predicted probabilities need to be better calibrated for this model to be useful for prediction in a real setting.
In model selection with small data sets it is recommended to use AUCc, which places a stronger penalty on larger numbers of parameters than the formulation we use [16]. At the same time we overestimate the effective number of parameters by taking k as the number of nonzero parameters, which does not take into account the shrinkage on parameter size. This places a larger penalty than necessary on a given model. Since in our case all models lie on the regularization path decided by the penalty size, a stronger/weaker parameter penalty will lead to similar results in terms of selected genes with some additions/omissions as the case may be.
The model we apply does not control for what is considered usual sources of confounding in breast cancer. This is both out of a desire to identify a prediagnosic gene signature for metastasis independent of questionnaire data, and from the realization that this would require the estimation of even more coefficients for alreadyinadequate data. The potential confounding from sources such as smoking and hormone therapy may not be a problem for prediction, but makes interpretation challenging. On the other hand what is considered a source of confounding for breast cancer may or may not be one when comparing breast cancers to one another in terms of metastasis. The explicit way to deal with this would be to derive a causal model to argue from.
This study is exploratory and not validated in external data. It is important that this work be viewed as hypothesis generating.
Availability of data and materials
The datasets generated and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due to restrictions under Norwegian regulations for access to confidential data based on patient consent and Research Ethics terms, but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Abbreviations
 AUC:

Area under the (ROC) curve
 BC:

Breast cancer
 LOWESS:

Locally weighted polynomial regression
 NOWAC:

Norwegian Women and Cancer
 ROC:

Receiver operating characteristic
References
Chi KR. The tumour trail left in blood. Nature. 2016;532:269–71.
Lim B, Hortobagyi GN. Current challenges of metastatic breast cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2016;. https://doi.org/10.1007/s105550169636y.
Lund E, Dumeaux V, Braaten T, Hjartåker A, Engeset D, Skeie G, Kumle M. Cohort profile: the norwegian women and cancer studynowackvinner og kreft. Int J Epidemiol. 2008;37(1):36–41.
Zou H, Hastie T. Regularization and variable selection via the elastic net. J R Stat Soc Ser B. 2005;67(2):301–20.
Dumeaux V, BørresenDale AL, Frantzen JO, Kumle M, Kristensen VN, Lund E. Gene expression analyses in breast cancer epidemiology: the Norwegian women and cancer postgenome cohort study. Breast Cancer Res. 2008;10(1):13. https://doi.org/10.1186/bcr1859.
Bøvelstad HM, Holsbø E, Bongo LA, Lund E. A standard operating procedure for outlier removal in largesample epidemiological transcriptomics datasets. bioRxiv 144519 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1101/144519. https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2017/05/31/144519.full.pdf.
Lund E, Holden L, Bøvelstad H, Plancade S, Mode N, Günther CC, Nuel G, Thalabard JC, Holden M. A new statistical method for curve group analysis of longitudinal gene expression data illustrated for breast cancer in the nowac postgenome cohort as a proof of principle. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2016;16(1):28. https://doi.org/10.1186/s128740160129z.
Akaike H. Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. In: 2nd international symposium on information theory. Akademiai Kiado; 1973; p. 267–281.
Verweij PJ, Van Houwelingen HC. Penalized likelihood in cox regression. Stat Med. 1994;13(23–24):2427–36.
Harrell F. Regression modeling strategies as implemented in R package ‘rms’ version 2013;3(3)
Holsbø E. Small data: practical modeling issues in humanmodel omic data. PhD thesis, UiT—the arctic University of Norway (2019). Online: https://hdl.handle.net/10037/14660.
Brier GW. Verification of forecasts expressed in terms of probability. Monthey Weather Rev. 1950;78(1):1–3.
Hanley JA, McNeil BJ. The meaning and use of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Radiology. 1982;143(1):29–36. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiology.143.1.7063747.
Haury AC, Gestraud P, Vert JP. The influence of feature selection methods on accuracy, stability and interpretability of molecular signatures. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(12):28210. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028210.
Efron B, Gong G. A leisurely look at the bootstrap, the jackknife, and crossvalidation. Am Stat. 1983;37(1):36–48.
Burnham KP, Anderson DR. Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical informationtheoretic approach. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 2002.
Acknowledgements
The publication charges for this article have been funded by a grant from the publication fund of UiT The Arctic University of Norway.
Funding
This study was supported by a grant from the European Research Council (ERCAdG 232997 TICE).
Author information
Authors and Affiliations
Contributions
EH provided most writing and data analysis. EB, VP, and LAB contributed substantially to design, interpretation and writing. EL conceived the project and provided study design and data acquisition on the NOWAC side. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Corresponding author
Ethics declarations
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The women in this study have given written informed consent for blood sampling. We have received approval from the Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics for the basic collection and storing of questionnaire information, blood samples and tumour tissue from patients. All women have provided informed consent for later linkages to the Cancer Registry of Norway, the Norwegian Mammographic Screening Program, and the register of death certificates in Statistics Norway. The informed consent formula explicitly mentions that the blood samples can be used for gene–environment analyses. All data are stored and handled according to the permission given from the Norwegian Data Inspectorate.
Consent for publication
Not applicable.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Additional information
Publisher’s Note
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Supplementary information
Additional file 1.
Expression levels of selected genes. This figure shows the expression levels of selected genes ordered by difference in medians between metastasized andnonmetastasized observations.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
About this article
Cite this article
Holsbø, E., Perduca, V., Bongo, L.A. et al. Predicting breast cancer metastasis from wholeblood transcriptomic measurements. BMC Res Notes 13, 248 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104020050880
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104020050880
Keywords
 Transcriptomics
 Predictive models
 Metastasis
 Breast cancer
 Epidemiology