Skip to main content

The impact of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) extract on activation of endosomal toll like receptors and their downstream signaling pathways

Abstract

Objectives

From the ancient, medicinal benefits of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) have been implicated for respiratory and digestive diseases despite the effects of Hyssop on viral infections have not been mechanistically investigated. In this study, we examined whether the Hyssop extract activated anti-viral innate immunity, as a sentinel for immune system, through activation of endosomal TLRs recognizing nucleic acids and their downstream signaling. The Hyssop herb extracts was prepared and co-cultured with healthy individual’s peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). After viability assay, gene expression levels of TLR3,7,8,9, as well as MyD88 and NF-κB, were evaluated in treated PBMCs using Real-time PCR. Next, the secretion level of immune related cytokines was quantified via ELISA.

Results

Post 24 h, 40 µg/ml of the extract significantly inhibited the viability of less than 50% of cells compared to the control and had a maximum effect on cellular function. The Hyssop-treated PBMCs demonstrated an elevated expression of endosomal TLRs genes, as well as MyD88 and NF-κB. Moreover, the release of INF-α and β notably enhanced in cell culture supernatant, while the content of inflammatory cytokines remarkably diminished (P < 0.05). The Hyssop extract was capable of inducing antiviral innate immune responses so can be promising in antiviral drug strategies.

Introduction

One of the most important plants in the traditional medicine is Hyssop (Hyssopus Officinalis L.), belonging to Lamiaceae family, used in flavored beverages from the ancient. In Iran, Hyssop plant is grown spontaneously in the northwestern and southeastern of Iran, and the regions around the Caspian Sea [1]. According to previous studies, the Hyssop plant possesses excessive medicinal properties such as antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral activities, which have made it a beneficial folk medicine to alleviate digestive and intestinal disorders, as well as respiratory diseases such as tuberculosis, asthma, chronic catarrh, and bronchitis [2, 3]. Srivastava et al. have reported the effectiveness of Hyssop in the treatment of nose, throat, and lung afflictions because of its anti-inflammatory properties in Southern Europe [4]. Nevertheless, these therapeutic applications and health benefits of Hyssop have been documented mainly based on traditional medicine observations rather than scientific evidences [5]. Indeed, there are not enough scientific data regarding the mechanism of immune system activation via Hyssop herb.

With the recent COVID-19 outbreak, a discussion has emerged about the potential values of traditional medicine in the prevention and treatment of the disease when modern medicine appears to be disabled to overcome it. Viral illnesses, with their fascinating dynamics of causative organisms are undoubtedly at the top of our wish list [6]. It has been believed that innate immune system acts as the first responder for the detection and clearance of infections. Innate immune cells secrete various cytokines which inhibit viral replication, stimulate the adaptive immune response, and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection [7,8,9,10]. Considerably, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are responsible for sensing invading microbes in different parts of a cell, such as the plasma membrane (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, and TLR11) or in intracellular endosomes (TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, and TLR10) [11]. TLRs trigger innate immune responses through activation of signaling cascades depending on the adaptors myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) or TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), and then sequentially induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, type I interferons (IFNs-I), chemokines, and antimicrobial proteins through transcription factors activation such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) [12].

According to these evidences, this study aimed to investigate the impact of Hyssop extract on innate immune response through activation of TLRs and probable signaling pathways in anti-viral responses.

Main text

Materials and methods

PBMCs isolation from blood samples

PBMCs were isolated from heparinized blood samples of 45 healthy individuals (for all assays) and 20 COVID-19 patients (for MTT assay only) by Histopaq density gradient centrifugation (Sigma, Missouri, USA) after receiving informed consent from the participants. In details, the obtained samples were diluted with the same volume of PBS. Then, the Ficoll-Paque Plus (Biosra, France) was carefully added to diluted samples in 1:2 ratio respectively. The mixture was then centrifuged at 400 × g for 20 min at 20 °C. The undisturbed PBMC layer was carefully transferred to a new tube and washed twice with three volumes of PBS. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Code: IR.TBZMED.REC.1399.1143).

Extraction of plant extracts and treatment with PBMCs

Plant extracts was extracted from 10 g of crushed hyssopus samples using ultrasonic bath at 20 kHz and 100 ml of ethanol (80%) at 45 °C for 20 min. Then, the solvents was evaporated by vacuum evaporator SPS:refid::bib13(13). The Hyssop extract was then treated with PBMCs (1 × 106 cells/well) in complete RPMI-1640 medium (Gibco, Paisley, UK) supplemented 15% heat-inactivated fetal bovin serum (FBS; Gibco, Paisley, UK), 100 mg/ml streptomycin, 100 u/ml penicillin (Gibco) and 2 mM L-glutamine (Gibco, Paisley, UK) for 12, 24 and 48 h at 37 °C in 5% atmospheric CO2 and 95% humidity. Simultaneously, PBMCs were stimulated with suboptimal dose (10 ng/ml) of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA; Gibco, NY, USA).

Cell viability

The viability of PBMCs was measured by the methyl thiazol tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Briefly, 2 × 105 cells/well were seeded in a 96-well plate. The cells were treated with increasing concentrations of Hyssop extract (5–50 µg/ml) for 24 h. Subsequently, 100 ul of MTT (1 mg/ml, Sigma, USA) was added into each well and incubated for 4 h at 37 °C. Then, 100 µl DMSO was added to each well to dissolve the purple formazan crystals and incubated in room temperature for 30 min. Later, the optical density was measured using a spectrophotometer at 540 nm wavelength and compared to untreated cells [14].

Gene expression assay

The expression levels of genes including TLR 3,7,8,9, as well as NF-κB and Myd88 genes were assessed in PBMCs treated with Hyssop extract by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Briefly, total RNA was extracted from cultured PBMCs using RNA extraction kit (Qiagen, Hamburg, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Then, cDNA synthesis was synthesized by the usage of a cDNA synthesis kit (Exiqon, Copenhagen, Denmark), based on manufacturer’s instructions. The expression level of each mRNA was measured by real-time PCR and a SYBR Green Real Time PCR kit (Ampliqon), according to manufacturer’s instructions. Finally, the mRNA expression was normalized by the detection of β-actin housekeeping gene. The used primers sequences designed by OLIGO v. 7.56 software (Molecular Biology Insights, Inc., CA, USA) for qPCR assay are listed in Additional file 1: Table S1.

Quantification of cytokine levels

The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8 and IFN I α and β cytokines were quantified using ELISA kits (Mybiosource, San Diego, USA), according to the manufacturer’s instruction. Briefly, the wells of micro-titer ELISA plate (Maxisorp, Nunc, Roskilde, Denmark) were coated with anti-TNF-α, anti-IL-1β, anti-IL-8 and anti-IFN I α and β antibodies. Afterward, the supernatant of the cells and biotinylated mouse anti-hTNF-α mAb, anti-hIL-1β mAb, anti-hIL-8 mAb and anti-hIFN I α and β mAb were added to the relative wells. Next, the existence of anti-cytokine antibody was investigated by the addition of a streptavidin alkaline phosphatase conjugated anti-mouse IgG Ab (Sigma). Finally, p-nitrophenyl phosphate (4 mg/ml) was added as substrate and the absorbance was evaluated at 405 nm in an ELISA plate reader (LabSystems, Helsinki, Finland).

Statistical analysis

All experiments were performed in triplicate. Achieved data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism v.8 (GraphPad, La Jolla, CA) and presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD). One-Way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's T3 multiple comparisons test was done to compare the means between groups. p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results

Hyssop extract decreased the PBMCs cells viability

To determine the cytotoxic effect of Hyssop extract on PBMCs, the cells were treated with multiple concentrations of the extract. Our results depicted the proliferation rate of cells was inhibited as the extract concentration enhanced during 24 h, so that the IC50 value of the Hyssop extract was about 45 µg/ml (Additional file 2: Fig. S1A). Almost similar results were observed on PBMC of COVID-19 patients (Additional file 2: Fig. S1B). According to this, a sub-cytotoxic concentration of 40 µg/ml herbal extract, lower than its IC50 value, was used for the forward examinations.

Hyssop extract increased the TLRs and down-stream molecules expression level

The expression levels of TLR 3, 7, 8, 9 genes, as well as Myd88 and NF-κB genes were evaluated in Hyssop extract treated cells using real-time PCR. As illustrated in Fig. 1, after 24 and 48 h, the fold changes of TLR 3, 7, 8, and 9 genes were remarkably increased in the treated cells when compared with the control group. Nonetheless, the differences of the expression levels of each TLR genes during 24 and 48 h were not statically significant. Moreover, Myd88 expression level was notably increased in the treated cells after 24 h and 48 h. However, NF-κB expression was significantly increased after 48 h, only compared to control group (Additional file 3: Fig. S2, Table 1).

Fig. 1
figure 1

Gene expression levels of endosomal TLRs. The fold changes of TLR 3, 7, 8, and 9 gene expressions were estimated in PBMCs treated with 40 µg/ml Hyssop extract in comparison to the control following 12, 24 and 48 h using real time PCR. The experiment was performed in triplicate. Data are presented as mean ± standard division (SD). P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant

Table 1 Gene and protein expression of TLRs and downstream molecules in studied population

The influence of Hyssop extract on cytokine secretions from PBMCs

The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 and IFN I α and β cytokines secreted from the cells treated with Hyssop extract were determined using ELISA. The results showed that Hyssop extract had a significant increasing effect on IFN-Iα and IFN-Iβ production in treated cells after 24 and 48 h compared to the control group. However, at the same time points, the concentration of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 were remarkably decreased in supernatants of treated cells in comparison to the untreated control (Fig. 2, Table 1).

Fig. 2
figure 2

Protein expression levels of cytokines. The expression levels of IFN-α and β, IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-8 proteins were quantitatively assessed by ELISA test in PBMCs treated with 40 µg/ml Hyssop extract in comparison to the control after 12, 24 and 48 h. The experiment was performed in triplicate. Data are presented as mean ± standard division (SD). P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant

Discussions

In this study, the role of Hyssop plant in induction of anti-viral innate immune response was assessed. Our results exhibited that the Hyssop extract can significantly enhance the expression levels of endosomal TLRs genes including TLR 3,7,8,9 and their downstream signaling pathway molecules.

In folk medicine, Hyssop has been used as an anti-inflammatory, anti-catarrhal, and antispasmodic drug in different nations [4, 5]. In parallel, from the scientific point of view, it has been declared that Hyssopus officinalis effectively regulates the secretion of IL-4, IL-17 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), as well as T helper (Th) 1/Th2 cytokines imbalance in asthmatic mouse model [15,16,17]. However, it is unclear how Hyssop extract influences innate immune responses, which undoubtedly acts a critical role in restriction of infection and inhibition of pathogen invasion [18]. Thus, we investigated the impact of this herb extract on TLR signaling pathways, as the main pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in innate immune responses [19]. On the other hand, it has been highlighted that tea blends of Hyssop herb are effective in cough relief, and treatment of laryngitis [4]. According to this, we assumed that Hyssop plant is beneficial for viral infections such as COVID-19 which affect respiratory tracts. Our results indicated that the fold changes of endosomal TLRs including TLR 3,7,8,9 gene expressions significantly enhanced in PBMCs treated with Hyssop extract following 24 and 48 h. As such, the gene expression level of Myd88 and NF-κB notably elevated in these cells in comparison to the control. It is well accepted that endosomal TLRs recognize microbial nucleic acids especially viral nucleic acids [20]. TLR 7, 8,and 9 employ Myd88 molecule to direct their signaling pathway; while, TLR3 activation is transferred through the TRIF molecule [21]. Finally, MyD88/TRIF-NF-κB signaling cascade induces the production of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1 and IFN-I [21]. Based on coronavirus-related studies findings, TLR 3&7 are the most likely candidates recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which are considered as important immune mechanisms controlling infection, particularly SARS-CoV-2 [22]. Sallenave et al. demonstrated that TLR 2, 3, 7 and 8 can stimulate the production of antiviral pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-8, IFNs) in epithelial and myeloid cells following the activation of NF-κB [23]. However, our results displayed that the secretion of IFN-α and β are significantly increased in supernatants of the treated cells, while the inflammatory cytokines including IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α are considerably diminished in these cells. This may raise the hypothesis that the inhibitory effect of Hyssop on inflammation is independent from endosomal TLRs signaling; whereas, the herb extract stimulates IFN-I release through endosomal TLRs activation. Previously, Liu et al. demonstrated that hyssopuside (HY), a novel phenolic glycoside isolated from Hyssopus cuspidatus, were able to reduce nitric oxide (NO) production and hamper the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated macrophages [24]. Meanwhile, whether TLRs are involved in the inhibition of poinflammatory processes via Hyssop needs further researches.

Blanco-Melo et al. also reported that IFN-I can efficiently restrict SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 triggers an IFN-I response which could limit viral spread [25]. Furthermore, a clinical study reported that IFN-I were not detected (particularly IFN-β) or at least at lower levels (IFN-α) in plasma of patients with severe COVID-19 [26, 27]. Some studies have also described a direct relationship between the severity of COVID-19 and over-production of proinflammatory cytokines [9, 28,29,30].

Conclusion

We showed that the Hyssop extract can significantly induce antiviral cytokine (INFs-I) production in PBMCs possibly through endosomal TLRs and their downstream signaling pathways. Moreover, the Hyssop has the capability to impede the release of proinflammatory cytokines from the PBMCs suggesting the potential usage of Hyssop in antiviral drugs. Although, it needs ongoing examinations on mechanisms by which the plant exerts anti-inflammatory consequences.

Limitations

A limitation of our study is the lack of functional assay.

Availability of data and materials

The data cannot be shared in public because of ethics and individual privacy restrictions but are limitedly available by contacting the corresponding author of this study, privately.

Abbreviations

MyD88:

Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88

TLRs:

Toll like receptors

NF-κB:

Nuclear factor kappa B

IFNs-I:

Type I interferons

TRIF:

TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β

PBMCs:

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells

MTT:

Methyl thiazol tetrazolium

PCR:

Polymerase chain reaction

TNF-α:

Tumor necrosis factor alpha

IL:

Interleukin

References

  1. Omidbaigi R. Production and processing of medicinal plants, vol. 2. Mashhad: Razavi Ghods Astan Publication; 2009. p. 347.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Hajdari A, Giorgi A, Beretta G, Gelmini F, Buratti S, Benedetti S, et al. Phytochemical and sensorial characterization of Hyssopus officinalis subsp. aristatus (godr,) Nyman (Lamiaceae) by GC–MS, HPLC–UV–DAD, spectrophotometric assays and e-nose with aid of chemometric techniques. Eur Food Res Technol. 2018;244(7):1313–27.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Judžentienė A. Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) oils. In: Essential oils in food preservation, flavor and safety. Elsevier; 2016. p. 471–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-416641-7.00053-5

  4. Srivastava A, Awasthi K, Kumar B, Misra A, Srivastava S. Pharmacognostic and pharmacological evaluation of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) collected from Kashmir Himalayas, India. Pharmacogn J. 2018. https://doi.org/10.5530/pj.2018.4.114.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Vlase L, Benedec D, Hanganu D, Damian G, Csillag I, Sevastre B, et al. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic profile for Hyssopus officinalis Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Molecules. 2014;19(5):5490–507.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Rastogi S. Viral epidemics in India: joining hands to win the battle. AAM. 2017;6(3–4):86–9.

    Google Scholar 

  7. McKechnie JL, Blish CA. The innate immune system: fighting on the front lines or fanning the flames of COVID-19? Cell Host Microbe. 2020;27(6):863–9.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Etemadi J, Bordbar S, Soltani-Zangbar MS, Hajivalili M, Aghebati-Maleki L, Motavalli R, et al. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in asymptomatic hemodialysis patients. Immunol Invest. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2021.1899202.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Soltani-Zangbar MS, Parhizkar F, Ghaedi E, Tarbiat A, Motavalli R, Alizadegan A, et al. A comprehensive evaluation of the immune system response and type-I Interferon signaling pathway in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Cell Commun Signal. 2022;20(1):106.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Soltani-Zangbar MS, Parhizkar F, Abdollahi M, Shomali N, Aghebati-Maleki L, Shahmohammadi Farid S, et al. Immune system-related soluble mediators and COVID-19: basic mechanisms and clinical perspectives. Cell Commun Signal. 2022;20(1):1–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Qian C, Cao X. Regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling pathways in innate immune responses. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013;1283(1):67–74.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Kawai T, Akira S. The role of pattern-recognition receptors in innate immunity: update on Toll-like receptors. Nat Immunol. 2010;11(5):373–84.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Esmaeilzadeh Kenari R, Mohsenzadeh F, Amiri ZR. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods. Food Sci Nutr. 2014;2(4):426–35.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Sharma GP, Gurung SK, Inam A, Nigam L, Bist A, Mohapatra D, et al. CID-6033590 inhibits p38MAPK pathway and induces S-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in DU145 and PC-3 cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2019;60:420–36.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Wang Y, Ma J, Ma X, Ding J, Jia H, Zhu M, et al. Effects of Uygur herb Hyssopus officinalis L. on cytokines in allergic asthma mice. Shanghai Zhong Yiyao Daxue Xuebao. 2008;22:58–60.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Hou M, Ma X, Ding J, Zhu M, Ma J, Ma X, et al. Effect of Uygur medicine Hyssopus officinalis L. on serum eotaxin-2, eotaxin-3 and sP-selectin level of asthma rats. Keji Daobao Sci Technol Rev. 2009;27(19):90–3.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Jamzadfard M, Ebrahimi H. Effects of herbal Medicine in boosting immune system: Evaluation of the therapeutic effects of some herbs that constitute Paraton herbal distillate. In: 3rd International conference on agricultural sciences, medicinal plants, and traditional medicine, Sep 2020. Georgia. 2020.

  18. Medzhitov R. Toll-like receptors and innate immunity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2001;1(2):135–45.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Cao X. Self-regulation and cross-regulation of pattern-recognition receptor signalling in health and disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2016;16(1):35–50.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Singh H, Koury J, Kaul M. Innate immune sensing of viruses and its consequences for the central nervous system. Viruses. 2021;13(2):170.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Federico S, Pozzetti L, Papa A, Carullo G, Gemma S, Butini S, et al. Modulation of the innate immune response by targeting toll-like receptors: a perspective on their agonists and antagonists. J Med Chem. 2020;63(22):13466–513.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Mazaleuskaya L, Veltrop R, Ikpeze N, Martin-Garcia J, Navas-Martin S. Protective role of Toll-like receptor 3-induced type I interferon in murine coronavirus infection of macrophages. Viruses. 2012;4(5):901–23.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Sallenave J-M, Guillot L. Innate immune signaling and proteolytic pathways in the resolution or exacerbation of SARS-CoV-2 in Covid-19: key therapeutic targets? Front Immunol. 2020;11:1229.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Liu X, Su J, Wang G, Zheng L, Wang G, Sun Y, et al. Discovery of phenolic glycoside from Hyssopus cuspidatus attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory responses by inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression through suppression of NF-κB activation. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(22):12128.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Blanco-Melo D, Nilsson-Payant BE, Liu W-C, Uhl S, Hoagland D, Møller R, et al. Imbalanced host response to SARS-CoV-2 drives development of COVID-19. Cell. 2020;181(5):1036-45.e9.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Soltani-Zangbar MS, Mahmoodpoor A, Dolati S, Shamekh A, Valizadeh S, Yousefi M, et al. Serum levels of vitamin D and immune system function in patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care unit. Gene Rep. 2022;26:101509.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Hadjadj J, Yatim N, Barnabei L, Corneau A, Boussier J, Smith N, et al. Impaired type I interferon activity and inflammatory responses in severe COVID-19 patients. Science. 2020;369(6504):718–24.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Soltani-Zangbar MS, Aghebati-Maleki L, Hajivalili M, Haji-Fatahaliha M, Motavalli R, Mahmoodpoor A, et al. Application of newly developed SARS-CoV2 serology test along with real-time PCR for early detection in health care workers and on-time plasma donation. Gene Rep. 2021;23: 101140.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):497–506.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Mahmoodpoor A, Hosseini M, Soltani-Zangbar S, Sanaie S, Aghebati-Maleki L, Saghaleini SH, et al. Reduction and exhausted features of T lymphocytes under serological changes, and prognostic factors in COVID-19 progression. Mol Immunol. 2021;138:121–7.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful of the participants for their contribution in accomplishing this. The financial support of this study was underwritten by a grant from Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran (grant number: 66425).

Funding

This work is financially supported by Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran [Grant NO. 66425].

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

MG: Manuscript writing; Laboratory assays; Data collection or management. MH: Manuscript writing. MSS-Z: Data collection or management; Laboratory assays; Data analysis. RM: Data collection. LA-M: Laboratory assays. SD: Laboratory assays. AM: Manuscript editing. MY: Protocol/project development, Data management. JAH: Supervisor; Protocol/project development. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Javad Ahmadian Heris.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The ethics Code of the present study is IR.TBZMED.REC.1399.1143 which is approved by the ethics committee of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants after receiving an explanation of the study.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Additional file 1: Table S1.

Primer sequences of the evaluated genes

Additional file 2: Fig S1.

Cell viability. A Healthy individuals’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated with increasing concentrations of the Hyssop extract for 24 h and the viability of the cells were evaluated using MTT assay in comparison to untreated cells. B COVID-19 patients’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated with increasing concentrations of the Hyssop extract for 24 h and the viability of the cells were evaluated using MTT assay in comparison to untreated cells. The experiment was performed in triplicate. Data are presented as mean ± standard division (SD). P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. *Represents for P < 0.05.

Additional file 3: Fig S2.

Gene expression levels of Myd88 and NF-κB. The fold changes of Myd88 and NF-κB gene expressions were assessed in PBMCs treated with 40 µg/ml Hyssop extract in comparison to the control after 12, 24 and 48 h using real time PCR. The experiment was performed in triplicate. Data are presented as mean ± standard division (SD). P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ghasempour, M., Hosseini, M., Soltani-Zangbar, M.S. et al. The impact of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) extract on activation of endosomal toll like receptors and their downstream signaling pathways. BMC Res Notes 15, 366 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-022-06253-3

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-022-06253-3

Keywords

  • Hyssop
  • TLR
  • Immune system
  • Proinflammatory cytokines
  • IFN-I