Doppler ultrasound findings correlate with tissue vascularity and inflammation in surgical pathology specimens from patients with small intestinal Crohn’s disease
© Sasaki et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 9 July 2013
Accepted: 26 May 2014
Published: 14 June 2014
Crohn’s disease (CD) is routinely evaluated using clinical symptoms, laboratory variables, and the CD activity index (CDAI). However, clinical parameters are often nonspecific and do not precisely reflect the actual activity of CD small-intestinal lesions. The purposes of this prospective study were to compare color Doppler ultrasound (US) findings with histological findings from surgically resected specimens and confirm the hypothesis that color Doppler US can distinguish tissue inflammation and fibrosis.
Among 1764 consecutive patients who underwent color Doppler US examinations, 10 patients with CD (12 small-intestinal CD lesions) who underwent US examinations before elective small-intestine resection were evaluated in the present study. Areas of thickened intestinal walls were evaluated in terms of blood flow using color Doppler US imaging. The blood flow was semiquantitatively classified as “hyper-flow” and “hypo-flow” according to the Limberg score. Resected lesions were macroscopically and histopathologically processed. Inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrosis and vascularity were evaluated by myeloperoxidase (granulocytes), CD163 (macrophages), CD79a (B cells), CD3 (T cells), Masson’s trichrome (fibrosis), and factor VIII staining (vascular walls). All histopathological images were entered into virtual slide equipment and quantified using a quantitative microscopy integrated system (TissueMorph™).
There were no significant differences in disease features or laboratory findings between “hypo-flow” lesions (n = 4) and “hyper-flow” lesions (n = 8). Histopathologically, “hyper-flow” lesions showed significantly greater bowel wall vascularity (factor VIII) (p = 0.047) and inflammatory cell infiltration, including CD163 macrophages (p = 0.008), CD3 T cells, and CD79a B cells (p = 0.043), than did “hypo-flow” lesions. There was no apparent association between the blood flow and CDAI.
In this study, active CD lesions were macroscopically visible in surgical specimens of patients with increased blood flow on preoperative color Doppler US imaging. Additionally, these CD lesions exhibited significantly greater vascularity and numbers of inflammatory leukocytes microscopically. Color Doppler US may predict tissue inflammation and fibrosis in small-intenstinal CD lesions.
KeywordsCrohn’s disease Small intestine Color doppler ultrasound Vascularity Inflammation Fibrosis
Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestine that follows a pattern of relapse and remission characterized by segmental and transmural inflammation that can lead to luminal stricture. CD activity is generally assessed using a combination of clinical symptoms, blood tests, the CD activity index (CDAI), and imaging techniques [1, 2]. However, clinical symptoms and laboratory test results are often nonspecific, and judging whether these signify the presence of active lesions or obstruction due to fibrotic strictures is generally difficult. Especially, a lesion in the small intestine lying deep in the abdomen rarely contributes to clinical symptoms or is detected in blood tests, even in patients with relapsing enteritis, and is difficult to approach by endoscopy. Numerous studies have demonstrated the ability of a variety of imaging modalities to predict CD disease activity [3–9], but to date, no study has been able to assess the degree of inflammation accurately. Because a single absolute reference method to assess disease activity is lacking, multiple parameters and imaging modalities are often used.
The European guidelines for CD diagnosis recommend transabdominal ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) enterography/enteroclysis as minimally invasive alternatives to endoscopy and contrast imaging for examination of the small intestine [10–12]. Color Doppler US is a noninvasive method for evaluating intestinal wall blood flow; therefore, this method should be appropriate for assessment of CD activity [13, 14]. When compared with conventional CT or MRI, transabdominal US has the advantage of high spatial resolution, which allows external examination of the five-layered mural structure and transmural hypervascularity in the inflamed intestinal wall, and may help to detect the inflammatory activity of focal CD lesions [15–18].
We investigated whether or not increased blood flow to the intestinal wall observed on US implies histopathological inflammation of CD lesions. Data on histological correlations of color Doppler US are still lacking, and few studies have performed histological evaluations of a small number of cases [19–21]. Accordingly, we aimed to compare intestinal wall blood flow by color Doppler US with quantitatively measured histopathological findings of inflammatory cell infiltration and vascularity in resected CD small-intestinal lesions.
Patients who underwent color Doppler US examinations at the Yokohama City University Medical Center from January 2008 to March 2012 were identified. Patients with CD who underwent preoperative transabdominal US prior to surgical resection of small-intestinal lesions were eligible for this study. To ensure that the lesion observed with color Doppler US was the same as that surgically resected, patients with a single lesion (or if multiple lesions were present, those close to the ileocecal valve) were included. Patients with internal or external fistulae, abscesses, and severe obstruction were excluded to eliminate the possible histological influences of secondary infection such as intestinal obstruction or abscess formation. Consequently, macroscopically representative CD cases were included, such as those with longitudinal ulcers, a cobblestone appearance, and fibrotic stenosis.
Prior to surgery, a detailed clinical history was collected, including age, sex, CD duration, previous segmental resection, disease location, disease behavior, preoperative therapy, site and duration of disease, number of clinical recurrences, and type of previous medical therapy. All patients were evaluated for clinical and biochemical activity in terms of CDAI, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Patients were excluded if the clinical data were incomplete.
Transabdominal US examinations
The examinations were performed by three highly experienced technicians (H.Y., N.S., and A.H.) together with a gastroenterologist (T.S.). The US examinations were performed without any special preparation; no prior fast, parenteral contrast reagents, or administration of oral contrast media to achieve adequate distension. The US equipment used was Aplio XG and XV (Toshiba Medical Systems Corp., Tochigi, Japan). A general scan was performed using a 6-MHz convex probe, and a more localized and detailed scan of the affected area was conducted using a 7.5-MHz linear probe. In the examination, the terminal ileum was identified using the ileocecal valve, after which the ileum was followed rostrally as continuously as possible for evaluation. When the examiners lost track of the intestine continuity, they identified a nearby intestine from which they resumed the examination, and the entire abdomen was searched for any detectable part of the small intestine using the graded compression technique .
In this study, we classified Grade 1 cases as “hypo-flow” and Grade 3 and 4 cases as “hyper-flow.” Grade 0 was excluded because it was not a CD lesion and was considered normal. Grade 2 was excluded because it was intermediate and not a representative image and was thus considered unsuitable for this analysis.
As described above, all cases that did not match the preoperative US images and postoperative surgical specimens were excluded from the study. Other excluded cases were patients with deep lesions that did not accommodate proper flow evaluation and patients with gas retention due to obstruction, which made bowel evaluation difficult.
The surgical treatments for the CD lesions were performed by an experienced surgeon specialized in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The resected area with the lesion was opened longitudinally from the side opposite to the mesenteric attachment and then fixed in buffered formalin. The pathology slide was prepared with transverse slices made at the site of pathological lesions observed on the US examination.
Resected small-intestinal segments were retrieved and evaluated. When the resected segment for pathological examination was prepared, the lesion location had to match exactly with color Doppler US findings. Thus, we selected the single lesion, or if there were several lesions, the existing terminal ileum. If the co-identity of the lesion in the surgical and US findings was questionable, the case was excluded. The specimen was transversely divided through the approximate lesion center and subjected to histological examination.
Specimens from three patients in whom a right hemicolectomy was performed during the same period due to colon cancer were used as controls versus surgical specimens.
Before contacting the study subjects, our protocol was reviewed and approved by the Screening Committee of the Yokohama City University Medical Center. Likewise, informed consent was obtained from all 10 patients who were eligible and agreed to participate in this study. Additionally, the Principle of Good Clinical Practice and the Declaration of Helsinki were adhered to at all times.
The IBM SPSS Statistics software, version 19 (IBM Japan, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was used for statistical analysis. For comparison of continuous variables from two data sets, the t-test was applied. Due to the small sample size, Fisher’s exact test was used to compare data sets, and a value of p < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.
Results and discussion
Baseline preoperative transabdominal color Doppler imaging
Baseline demographic variables, disease features, and laboratory findings in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) selected for color Doppler ultrasound evaluations of CD lesions in the small intestine
(n = 4)
(n = 8)
Age in years
40.0 ± 8.2
26.8 ± 13.8
CD duration in years
13.8 ± 7.8
3.9 ± 4.2
Previous segmental resection, %
Disease location, n (%)*
L1 (distal 1/3 ileum ± limited cecal)
L4b (upper, distal to ligament of Treitz and proximal to distal 1/3 ileum)
Disease behavior, n (%)*
B1 (nonstricturing, nonpenetrating)
B4 (structuring and penetrating)
Primary indication for surgery, n (%)
Recurrence of obstruction symptoms
196.2 ± 73.8
198.2 ± 63.9
C reactive protein (mg/dl)
1.30 ± 2.01
0.47 ± 0.34
Erythorocyte sedimentation rate (mm/h)
32.0 ± 30.0
16.9 ± 14.3
Preoperative therapy, n (%)
Elemental diet (>900 kcal)
Based on preoperative color Doppler imaging, the cases were classified into “hypo-flow” (n = 4) and “hyper-flow” (n = 8) groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in disease features and laboratory findings; e.g., disease type and preoperative treatment. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the CDAI of the two groups (Table 1).
Comparison of preoperative US flow and microscopic quantitative evaluation of inflammatory infiltration, vascularity, and fibrosis
We also performed a vascularity evaluation by immunohistochemical staining using an anti-factor VIII antibody (Figure 4). Vascular length was significantly greater in the “hyper-flow” group than in the control and “hypo-flow” groups (“hyper-flow” vs. control, p = 0.038; “hyper-flow” vs. “hypo-flow,” p = 0.047) (Figure 5A). Fibrosis was evaluated by quantitative analysis of Masson trichrome staining. The level of positive Masson trichrome staining in both the “hyper-flow” and “hypo-flow” groups was significantly higher than that in the control specimens (“hyper-flow” vs. control, p = 0.008; “hypo-flow” vs. control, p = 0.011), although there was no significant difference between the “hyper-flow” and “hypo-flow” groups (Figure 5C).
In this study, we used a novel quantitative digital software package combined with a whole slide scanner and an automated quantitative microscopy integrated system to evaluate the vascularity and inflammation of thickened small intestinal areas that corresponded to the areas scanned by color Doppler US. In the surgical specimens that showed increased blood flow on the color Doppler US, significant histopathological increases in vascularity and inflammatory cell infiltration were identified. Therefore, color Doppler US is capable of characterizing the inflammatory activity of CD small-intestinal lesions.
Doppler US has become widely used to assess the microvasculature of various organs, and recent findings indicate that it can assess the hemodynamics and inflammatory activity of certain lesions [24–26]. In rheumatoid arthritis, as demonstrated and described in the guidelines , there was a strong correlation between inflammation in the affected joints and angiogenesis. In addition, mediators such as fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, TNF-α, and interleukin-1 promote vascular proliferation in the affected synovial membrane [28–31]. Regarding CD, several reports state that increased blood flow revealed by US may reflect CD disease activity [8, 19, 32–34]. While few previous reports showed that Doppler US findings correlate with inflammation based on endoscopic biopsy specimens and/or surgical specimens [19–21, 32], our study is unique because we used surgical pathology as the gold standard for color Doppler US. Additionally, we investigated the histological inflammation and vascularity of the resected specimen’s intestinal wall and the correlation with the color Doppler US findings using a recently created digital quantitative technique that enables the evaluation of the inflammation, vascularity, and fibrosis of the entire cross-section of the intestinal wall. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the inflammatory cell infiltration and vascularity in all layers of the small-intestinal wall.
Vascular lesions and microvascular changes, such as granulomatous vasculitis, neovascularization, and dilatation of arteries and veins, are well known to be features of the pathogenesis of CD. According to recent reports [35, 36], there is new understanding regarding the induction of vascular proliferation during chronic CD inflammation, although there is no general consensus regarding its mechanism. Clinically, we often experience serious bleeding incidents from active CD lesions showing “hyper-flow” according to color Doppler US; such lesions are rapidly and successfully stabilized by administration of anti-TNF-α antibodies. Therefore, color Doppler US may help to determine when anti-TNF-α antibody should be administered for active small-intestinal CD lesions.
Previous reports often described a correlation between the US images of CD lesions and CDAI [8, 33, 37]. However, in this study there was no significant difference between the CDAI of “hypo-flow” and “hyper-flow” cases (Table 1). Additionally, there was no correlation between CDAI and histological vascularity (factor VIII stain) as analyzed by TissueMorph™ (data not shown). A poor correlation exists between the disease activity of affected small-intestinal lesions and the clinical level of severity as represented by inflammatory markers or the CDAI .
Our study has several limitations. It was limited by the small sample size, which included only patients who underwent surgery at a tertiary referral center. To definitively eliminate the possible histological influence of another pathologic process of CD itself, only representative CD lesions were included based on the prespecified inclusion criteria. Because of recent improvements in medical therapy and endoscopic dilatation, most surgical cases during our study were for more complicated conditions, such as internal fistulae or abscess formation, and therefore, fewer cases were available for inclusion. Another reason for the small sample size was the limitation to patients with a Limberg score of 1, 3, or 4 to allow better evaluation of blood flow. Therefore, patients with a Limberg score of 2, which is the most common score, were excluded. In our another study, when we compared the Limberg score of color Doppler US with the endoscopic activity score (simple endoscopic score for CD [SES-CD]), a substantial correlation was identified (ρ = 0.709, p < 0.001). A Grade 2 Limberg score was an intermediate grade between “hypo-flow” (Grade 1) and “hyper-flow” (Grade 3 and 4) . Additionally, there was concern regarding the accuracy of transabdominal US; this method has the disadvantages of being dependent on factors such as the experience level of the examining physician  and the fact that it is difficult to perform on overweight patients.
Our investigation outcomes clearly reflected histological CD activity; significant differences were noted in both blood flow and inflammatory cell infiltration between the “hyper-flow” and “hypo-flow” groups, and between the aforementioned and the control specimens. In conclusion, our data suggest that color Doppler US can predict tissue inflammation in CD small-intestinal lesions and is a promising modality for investigation and therapeutic management of CD small-intestinal lesions.
Availability of supporting data
The data sets supporting the results of this article are included within the article and its additional files.
We thank Kiyotsugu Kojima and Chika Nakajima for their outstanding work in the evaluation of biopsy specimens.
This work was funded in part by the Olympus Corporation, Japan.
- Best WR, Becktel JM, Singleton JW, Kern F: Development of a Crohn’s disease activity index. National cooperative crohn’s disease study. Gastroenterology. 1976, 70: 439-444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thia K, Faubion WA, Loftus EV, Persson T, Persson A, Sandborn WJ: Short CDAI: development and validation of a shortened and simplified Crohn’s disease activity index. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011, 17: 105-111.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Koh DM, Miao Y, Chinn RJ, Amin Z, Zeegen R, Westaby D, Healy JC: MR imaging evaluation of the activity of Crohn’s disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001, 177: 1325-1332.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Taylor SA, Punwani S, Rodriguez-Justo M, Bainbridge A, Greenhalgh R, De Vita E, Forbes A, Cohen R, Windsor A, Obichere A, Hansmann A, Rajan J, Novelli M, Halligan S: Mural Crohn disease: correlation of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging findings with angiogenesis and inflammation at histologic examination–pilot study. Radiology. 2009, 251: 369-379.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wold PB, Fletcher JG, Johnson CD, Sandborn WJ: Assessment of small bowel Crohn disease: noninvasive peroral CT enterography compared with other imaging methods and endoscopy–feasibility study. Radiology. 2003, 229: 275-281.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chiorean MV, Sandrasegaran K, Saxena R, Maglinte DD, Nakeeb A, Johnson CS: Correlation of CT enteroclysis with surgical pathology in Crohn’s disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007, 102: 2541-2550.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rapaccini GL, Pompili M, Orefice R, Covino M, Riccardi L, Cedrone A, Gasbarrini G: Contrast-enhanced power doppler of the intestinal wall in the evaluation of patients with Crohn disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2004, 39: 188-194.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Migaleddu V, Scanu AM, Quaia E, Rocca PC, Dore MP, Scanu D, Azzali L, Virgilio G: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic evaluation of inflammatory activity in Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology. 2009, 137: 43-52.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- De Franco A, Di Veronica A, Armuzzi A, Roberto I, Marzo M, De Pascalis B, De Vitis I, Papa A, Bock E, Danza FM, Bonomo L, Guidi L: Ileal Crohn disease: mural microvascularity quantified with contrast-enhanced US correlates with disease activity. Radiology. 2012, 262: 680-688.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Van Assche G, Dignass A, Panes J, Beaugerie L, Karagiannis J, Allez M, Ochsenkühn T, Orchard T, Rogler G, Louis E, Kupcinskas L, Mantzaris G, Travis S, Stange E, European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO): The second European evidence-based Consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn’s disease: definitions and diagnosis. J Crohns Colitis. 2010, 4: 7-27.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dignass A, Van Assche G, Lindsay JO, Lémann M, Söderholm J, Colombel JF, Danese S, D'Hoore A, Gassull M, Gomollón F, Hommes DW, Michetti P, O'Morain C, Oresland T, Windsor A, Stange EF, Travis SP, European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO): The second European evidence-based Consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn’s disease: current management. J Crohns Colitis. 2010, 4: 28-62.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Van Assche G, Dignass A, Reinisch W, van der Woude CJ, Sturm A, De Vos M, Guslandi M, Oldenburg B, Dotan I, Marteau P, Ardizzone A, Baumgart DC, D'Haens G, Gionchetti P, Portela F, Vucelic B, Söderholm J, Escher J, Koletzko S, Kolho KL, Lukas M, Mottet C, Tilg H, Vermeire S, Carbonnel F, Cole A, Novacek G, Reinshagen M, Tsianos E, Herrlinger K, et al: The second European evidence-based Consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn’s disease: special situations. J Crohns Colitis. 2010, 4: 63-101.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Maconi G, Parente F, Bollani S, Imbesi V, Ardizzone S, Russo A, Bianchi Porro G: Factors affecting splanchnic haemodynamics in Crohn’s disease: a prospective controlled study using Doppler ultrasound. Gut. 1998, 43: 645-650.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Martínez MJ, Ripollés T, Paredes JM, Blanc E, Martí-Bonmatí L: Assessment of the extension and the inflammatory activity in Crohn’s disease: comparison of ultrasound and MRI. Abdom Imaging. 2009, 34: 141-148.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fraquelli M, Colli A, Casazza G, Paggi S, Colucci A, Massironi S, Duca P, Conte D: Role of US in detection of Crohn’s disease: meta-analysis. Radiology. 2005, 236: 95-101.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Maconi G, Bollani S, Bianchi PG: Ultrasonographic detection of intestinal complications in Crohn’s disease. Digest Dis Sci. 1996, 41: 1643-1648.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Maconi G, Radice E, Greco S, Bianchi Porro G: Bowel ultrasound in Crohn’s disease. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2006, 20: 93-112.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nylund K, Ødegaard S, Hausken T, Folvik G, Lied GA, Viola I, Hauser H, Gilja OH: Sonography of the small intestine. World J Gastroenterol. 2009, 15: 1319-1330.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Drews BH, Barth TF, Hänle MM, Akinli AS, Mason RA, Muche R, Thiel R, Pauls S, Klaus J, von Boyen G, Kratzer W: Comparison of sonographically measured bowel wall vascularity, histology, and disease activity in Crohn’s disease. Eur Radiol. 2009, 19: 1379-1386.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kratzer W, von Tirpitz C, Mason R, Reinshagen M, Adler G, Möller P, Rieber A, Kächele V: Contrast-enhanced power Doppler sonography of the intestinal wall in the differentiation of hypervascularized and hypovascularized intestinal obstructions in patients with Crohn’s disease. J Ultrasound Med. 2002, 21: 149-157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ripollés T, Rausell N, Paredes JM, Grau E, Martínez MJ, Vizuete J: Effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for characterisation of intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease: a comparison with surgical histopathology analysis. J Crohns Colitis. 2013, 7: 120-128.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Puylaert JB: Acute appendicitis: US evaluation using graded compression. Radiology. 1986, 158: 355-360.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Limberg B: Diagnosis of chronic inflammatory bowel disease by ultrasonography. Z Gastroenterol. 1999, 37: 495-508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Strobel D, Goertz RS, Bernatik T: Diagnostics in inflammatory bowel disease: ultrasound. World J Gastroenterol. 2011, 17: 3192-3197.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Chamberland D, Jiang Y, Wang X: Optical imaging: new tools for arthritis. Integr Biol (Camb). 2010, 2: 496-509.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pavlica P, Barozzi L: Imaging of the acute scrotum. Eur Radiol. 2001, 11: 220-228.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Backhaus M, Burmester GR, Gerber T, Grassi W, Machold KP, Swen WA, Wakefield RJ, Manger B, Working Group for Musculoskeletal Ultrasound in the EULAR Standing Committee on International Clinical Studies including Therapeutic Trials: Guidelines for musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology. Ann Rheum Dis. 2001, 60: 641-649.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Walther M, Harms H, Krenn V, Radke S, Faehndrich TP, Gohlke F: Correlation of power Doppler sonography with vascularity of the synovial tissue of the knee joint in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2001, 44: 331-338.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Taylor PC: VEGF and imaging of vessels in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res. 2002, 4: 99-107.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vreju F, Ciurea M, Roşu A, Muşetescu A, Grecu D, Ciurea P: Power Doppler sonography, a non-invasive method of assessment of the synovial inflammation in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2011, 52: 637-643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marrelli A, Cipriani P, Liakouli V, Carubbi F, Perricone C, Perricone R, Giacomelli R: Angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis: a disease specific process or a common response to chronic inflammation?. Autoimmun Rev. 2011, 10: 595-598.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Di Sabatino A, Armellini E, Corazza GR: Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. Digest Dis. 2004, 22: 63-66.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Spalinger J, Patriquin H, Miron MC, Marx G, Herzog D, Dubois J, Dubinsky M, Seidman EG: Doppler US in patients with Crohn’s disease: vessel density in the diseased bowel reflects disease activity. Radiology. 2000, 217: 787-791.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Esteban JM, Maldonado L, Sanchiz V, Minguez M, Benages A: Activity of Crohn’s disease assessed by color Doppler ultrasound analysis of the affected loops. Eur Radiol. 2001, 11: 1423-1428.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Koutroubakis IE, Tsiolakidou G, Karmiris K, Kouroumalis EA: Role of angiogenesis in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006, 12: 515-523.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hatoum OA, Heidemann J, Binion DG: The intestinal microvasculature as a therapeutic target in inflammatory bowel disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006, 1072: 78-97.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kumar P, Domjan J, Bhandari P, Ellis R, Higginson A: Is there an association between intestinal perfusion and Crohn’s disease activity? a feasibility study using contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Br J Radiol. 2009, 82: 112-117.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hanauer SB, Sandborn W, Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of GastroenterologyPractice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology: Management of Crohn’s disease in adults. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001, 96: 635-643.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sasaki T, Kunisaki R, Kinoshita H, Yamamoto H, Kimura H, Hanzawa A, Shibata N, Yonezawa H, Miyajima E, Sakamaki K, Numata K, Tanaka K, Maeda S: Use of color Doppler ultrasonography for evaluating vascularity of small intestinal lesions in Crohn's disease: correlation with endoscopic and surgical macroscopic findings. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2014, 49: 295-301.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Panés J, Bouzas R, Chaparro M, García-Sánchez V, Gisbert JP, De Martínez Guereñu B, Mendoza JL, Paredes JM, Quiroga S, Ripollés T, Rimola J: Systematic review: the use of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis, assessment of activity and abdominal complications of Crohn’s disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011, 34: 125-145.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.